Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
1759
UK
Dr. Samuel Johnson denounced advertisements
as over-exaggerated and false.
http://timelines.ws May 2011
1850
US
Phineas T. Barnum brought Jenny Lind, the
"Swedish Nightingale" to America, employing
newspaper ads, handbills, and broadsides to
drum up extraordinary interest in this, until now,
unknown-to-Americans international singing star.
From being relatively anonymous six months
prior to her arrival, she was met at the docks by
30,000 New Yorkers - a result of Barnum's
advertising campaign.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1853
UK
The British tax of 1s 6d (7½p) on press
advertisements was abolished.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk February 2007
1855
Germany
The first German publicity [advertising] agency
was founded in Altona by Ferdinand Hasenstein
in 1855.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 119
1861
US
There were twenty advertising agencies in New
York City.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu August 2006
1867
US
New York (ad) agency Carlton and Smith begins
buying the right to place advertising in religious
magazines.
http://adage.com/century/timeline/ Feb 2012
1870
US
In response to the high volume of outdoor
advertising (including posters and signs painted
on rocks, buildings and barns) in cities and rural
areas, several states in the US [in the 1870s]
begin to impose limitations to protect natural
scenery from sign painters.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu August 2006
1870
US
In the 1870s, $1 million dollars was spent
annually advertising Lydia Pinkham's Pink Pills.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu November
2007
1879
US
The drug, toilet, and household preparations
output for domestic consumption was $765
million in 1920 , up from only $40 million in 1879.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu September
2006
1886
UK
Up to 60 per cent of major British newspapers,
such as the Times was devoted to advertising.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk September
2006
1886
US
N.W. Ayer promoted advertising with the slogan
“Keeping everlastingly at it brings success.”
[Note: advertising must have the character of
being news; thus the word "everlastingly." - SM]
http://www.adage.com September 2007
1889
US
James B. Duke spent 20 per cent of the gross
sales of his tobacco company earnings ($80,
000) towards advertising.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1890
US
J. Walter Thompson Company's billings total over
one million dollars.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1892
US
Sears, Roebuck & Co. mailed out 8,000 post
cards with imitation handwriting across the
country. 2,000 orders are received directly from
this promotional campaign.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1893
US
Frank Munsey dropped the price of Munsey's
Magazine to 10¢ and the cost of subscriptions to
$1, marking the first attempt at keeping a
magazine afloat by advertising revenue rather
than newsstand sales.
http://www.adage.com August 2006
1893
US
The Royal Baking Powder Co. was estimated be
the biggest newspaper advertiser in the world.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu September
2008
1896
US
The Monarch Bicycle Company spent $125,000
on advertising, including $10,000 for a bicycle
racing crew that tours the country participating in
bicycle races under the Monarch name. The
company sold 50,000 bicycles in 1896, up from 1,
200 sold in 1893.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu February 2007
1898
France
In France the Michelin Tire company began using
its tire-man logo. The first ad offered a toast with
broken nails and glass and told consumers that
the Michelin tire "drinks up obstacles."
http://timelines.ws October 2006
1898
US
N.W. Ayer helped National Biscuit Co. launch the
first prepackaged biscuit, Uneeda, with the
slogan “Lest you forget, we say it yet, Uneeda
Biscuit.” Eventually, the company launched the
first million-dollar advertising campaign for
Uneeda.
http://www.adage.com February 2007
1898
US
New York State passes law against misleading
advertising.
http://www.ketupa.net November 2006
1898
US
Sears (later of Sears, Roebuck and Co.) spent
half of his operating expenses on advertising.
http://www.trivia-library.com October 2006
1898
US
The Ladies' Home Journal had 48 pages of slick
paper with color covers and illustrations as well
as big-name writers. It had a circulation of 850,
000. By 1900, the Journal's circulation reached
one million. Curtis bought The Saturday Evening
Post; it grew gradually, but acquired a huge $5
million worth of advertising revenues by 1910,
with a circulation of over one million. Advertising
had now become an established mass-
communications form, with nationwide scope,
and increasing sophistication and influence. As
Joseph Seldin points out in The Golden Fleece,
by the end of the 1800s, newspapers and
magazines had become part of the U.S.
marketing system with the job of "inducing mass
consumption." Advertisers provided over 2/3 of
magazine revenues by 1909.
http://www.trivia-library.com October 2006
1898
US
The National Biscuit Company was founded, and
immediately began advertising its Uneeda
Biscuit, employing the N. W. Ayer & Sons
advertising agency for a campaign that became
very successful.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
Nov 1899
US
Magazines became spectacular advertising
vehicles. In Harper's of November 1899, 135
pages of the magazine were devoted to ads and
163 to editorial matters.
http://www.allclassicads.com/advertising-
timeline.html January 2011
1901
US
Coca-Cola advertising budget is $100,000.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1905
US
N. W. Ayer & Sons agency decided against
advertising patent medicines, as federal
regulation of the products looms.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1907
US
Bull Durham tobacco ads on New York City Fifth
Avenue buses and trolleys caused a commotion
due to the "male-obvious" depiction of the bull in
the ads; the drivers were arrested and the
pictures confiscated due to the offensive nature
of the illustrations. The legal case eventually went
all the way to the Supreme Court.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1910
US
$600 million was spent on advertising in the US
by business; this represented 4 percent of the
national income.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1914
US
The Federal Trade Commission Act [in the US]
was passed, and Joseph E. Davies was named
the first FTC chairman. Section 5 allowed it to
issue cease-and-desist orders against dishonest
advertising.
http://www.adage.com August 2006
1916
Canada
Feeling that they are contributing too great a
portion of newspapers' overall revenues,
Canadian advertisers demand papers hike their
single-copy price to two cents from the standard
one cent. By the start of 1918, only 26 of 131
dailies still sell for a penny.
http://www.marketingmag.ca/
english/news/media August 2010
1917
US
To support recruiting efforts and promote sales of
war bonds and stamps during World War I,
thousands of advertisers [in the US] featured war
themes in their campaigns while the media
contributed space. By 1919, contributions totaled
$2.5 billion.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1918
US
Advertising and politics shook hands in 1918
when Will B. Hays, chairman of the Republican
National Committee, hired super adman Albert
Lasker to promote the Republican party with
advertising techniques. Lasker produced
propaganda in favor of the party and U.S.
isolationism, and against Wilson's
internationalism. Lasker himself believed that
Europe was "blighted, decayed and evil." The
Republicans went on to win in 1920.
http://www.trivia-library.com August 2006
1918
US
After W. W. I, advertising skyrocketed. In the U.S.,
the total advertising expenditure in 1918 was
almost $1 1/2 billion. By 1919, it was almost $2
1/2 billion. By 1925, advertising expenditure had
jumped up over $3 billion. Advertising became
almost as important as industrial production itself.
Americans felt giddy and strong in the '20s, and
advertising sold images of "the good life."
Keeping up with the Joneses, the race for
material status became a major factor in
American social relations. People were taught to
seek pleasure through the acquisition of
nonessential products.
http://www.trivia-library.com August 2006
1918
US
The War Department bought the entire output of
Bull Durham tobacco. The American Tobacco
Company advertised, "When our boys light up,
the Huns will light out."
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1919
US
Advertising expenditures, only $2,282,000,000 in
1919 rose to $3,426,000,000 in 1929.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1920
US
Mass radio happened in the '20s. Advertisers
were spending over $4 million for radio time by
1927, and $10 million by 1928. Radio ads were
harsh and repetitious. Radio produced a number
of changes in the advertising scene: It gave
advertising a human voice with consequent
emotional and dramatic appeal; it pushed
advertising directly into the home; and, perhaps
most important, it provided a medium where
advertisers and ad agencies actually controlled
program content--advertisers chose programs
and directed them according to their own tastes.
This relationship had not existed in the printed
media. Additionally, radio had the effect of
blurring the lines between program content and
advertising messages. The foreground and the
background were purposely mixed and
overlapped in such a way that it was hard for the
listeners to figure out when they were being
solicited.
http://www.trivia-library.com August 2006
1922
US
The first radio advertisement in USA, US$100 for
ten minutes.
http://www.ketupa.net July 2008
1924
US
Coolidge spends US$120,000 on radio time in
first radio presidential campaign.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2008
1927
Mass radio happened in the '20s. Advertisers
were spending over $4 million for radio time by
1927, and $10 million by 1928. Radio ads were
harsh and repetitious. Radio produced a number
of changes in the advertising scene: It gave
advertising a human voice with consequent
emotional and dramatic appeal; it pushed
advertising directly into the home; and, perhaps
most important, it provided a medium where
advertisers and ad agencies actually controlled
program content--advertisers chose programs
and directed them according to their own tastes.
This relationship had not existed in the printed
media. Additionally, radio had the effect of
blurring the lines between program content and
advertising messages. The foreground and the
background were purposely mixed and
overlapped in such a way that it was hard for the
listeners to figure out when they were being
solicited.
http://www.allclassicads.com/advertising-
timeline.html January 2011
1927
US
As the American Newspaper Publishers
Association reassured its membership in 1927,
'Fortunately, direct advertising by radio is well
nigh an impossibility.'
McChesney, Rich, P. 191
1927
US
From virtual nonexistence in 1927, radio
advertising expenditures were over $100 million
in 1929.
McChesney, RIch, P. 192
1928
US
Barton, Durstine & Osborn merged with the
George Batten Co., forming Batten, Barton,
Durstine and Osborn (BBDO). With billings of
$32 million, it becomes one of the biggest shops.
htttp://www.adage.com January 2009
1929
Brazil
In 1929 the J. Walter Thompson Advertising
Agency of New York opened an office in Sao
Paulo, bringing with it the international
advertising standards of the time that included
the latest market strategies and research
techniques. The ostensible reason for this
expansion into Brazil was to service its major
client, General Motors, which had just opened a
manufacturing plant in Brazil.
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/advertising_and_
society_review/v009/9.2.o-barr.html June
2011
1929
US
In 1929, following the stock market crash,
advertising spending plummeted. From its high
of $3.5 billion [in the U.S.], it sunk to $1.5 billion
by 1933.
http://www.adage.com January 2009
1930
US
Charles Jenkins, who was fined by the U.S.
Federal Radio Commission, televised the first
commercial.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1931
US
Annual U.S. radio advertising: $31 million as
depression worsens.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
1932
US
NBC and CBS allow prices to be mentioned in
radio commercials.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
1933
US
The U.S. Government attempted to regulate
advertising to an unprecedented degree but
failed. Congress Bill S. 1944 was introduced in
1933 by Sen. R. S. Copeland (although it was
largely written by Rexford Guy Tugwell, a welfare
liberal who was appointed an under secretary of
Agriculture by FDR). The bill was a significant
threat to the manufacturers and advertisers. It
provided for strict controls, by the Government, of
industrial quality and of advertising. It
represented one of the New Deal's moves
toward a planned economy. The bill was hotly
contested and finally defeated in 1934. A milder
law--the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act--
was passed with the approval of both advertising
and industry.
http://www.trivia-library.com/a/history-of-
advertising-in-america-in-the-1930s-and-
1940s.htm January 2011
1936
Ireland
Irish law banned advertising any birth control
devices.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1936
North America
Liquor makers agreed voluntarily to stop
advertising on radio in 1936. TV advertising was
halted in 1948. The agreement held until 1996
when Seagram Co. began running both radio
and TV ads.
http://timelines.ws November 2009
1936
UK
Incorporated Society of British Advertisers
publishes 'The Readership of Newspapers and
Periodicals' based on 80,000 interviews.
http://www.magforum.com August 2007
1940
US
In the early 1940s, the U.S. Federal Trade
Commission came down hard on certain
advertisers for phony claims. But in general,
advertising made a comeback after the Terrible
Thirties. During W.W. II, advertising advanced
further. The War Advertising Council, consisting of
representatives of all aspects of advertising,
assisted the U.S. Government in preparing and
conducting campaigns for recruitment, war bonds,
and other wartime necessities. War-time tie-ins
were universal: An air-conditioner manufacturer
claimed that he was sinking Japanese ships
because the periscope lenses of American
submarines had been made in an air-conditioned
shop. Similarly, Hitler smiles when you waste
miles, from B. F. Goodrich. Or, Idle words make
busy subs. Keep it under your Stetson.
http://www.trivia-library.com/a/history-of-
advertising-in-america-in-the-1930s-and-
1940s.htm January 2011
1941
US
'Pepsi-Cola Hits the Spot' was the first jingle
played on network radio. Pepsi releases more
than one million copies for jukeboxes. Still, it's no
match for the Chiquita Banana jingle, which Time
magazine declares "The undisputed No. 1 on the
jingle-jangle hit parade." The Chiquita jingle is
played 376 times a day on the radio. Versions by
the King Sisters, the Five DeMarcos, and Patti
Clayton (almost 1 million records sold) are
jukebox hits. In 1945, in cooperation with the U.S.
Dept. of Agriculture, the lyrics are revised to urge
Americans to eat more fresh fruit and vegetables.
http://www.stayfreemagazine.org August
2006
16 Feb 1941
US
Printing unions urge congress to limit commercial
radio time to 25 percent of programs, charging
that the switch from newspapers to radio by
advertising has cost 25,000 jobs in the printing
trades.
Leonard, Advertising
1942
US
In Valentine v. Chrestensen, the Supreme Court
ruled that commercial speech need not be
accorded the same protection as political
speech if it was "purely commercial advertising."
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
24 Feb 1942
International
The Voice of America went on the air for the first
time with broadcasts in German. The US State
Dept. made William Winter (d.1999) its first
Voice of America three months before the
bombing of Pearl Harbor.
http://timelines.ws January 2008
25 Apr 1945
Europe
Clandestine Radio 1212, used to hoax Nazi
Germany, made its final transmission.
http://timelines.ws January 2008
1950
US
In the early 1950s overproduction was glutting the
scene. Marketing became of equal importance
with production. Hundreds of similar products
were competing with each other. Millions of
working-class families moved into the suburbs
and became middle class, upsetting traditional
class categories. The GNP jumped from $300
billion to $400 billion between 1950 and 1955.
"Convenience" foods began to appear--400
million frozen pot pies were consumed in 1958. In
1957, an estimated 5,000 new grocery items
were introduced. The corporate-government
structure had to sell more products so it could
continue to make more products and expand. An
all-out effort was launched to mass-analyze the
American public, broken down into Designated
Market Areas. Hundreds of social scientists
moved into the ad business. By 1955, McCann-
Erickson had 5 psychologists on its staff.
http://www.trivia-library.com February 2007
1950
US
The confection and soft drink industry suffered a
setback in the 1950s. Between 1950 and 1955,
consumption of such items dropped 10 percent.
Presumably, citizens were worried about dieting
and tooth decay. (Much of the anti-sugar publicity
was generated by the manufacturers of low-
calorie products and toothpastes.) The industry
hired Dr. Dichter. He told them that the real
problem was a guilt feeling about self-indulgence
on the part of the individuals in the market area.
He advised them, for instance, to emphasize bite-
sized pieces in order to give people a feeling that
they weren't eating too much. Ultimately, the
sugar industry began a campaign promoting
candy as a dietary aid, suggesting that people try
the "scientific nibble" of sweets to control their
appetites.
http://www.trivia-library.com April 2007
1950
US
The Lucky Strike radio-show -a music-staple
since the '30s-was reincarnated as a successful
NBC-TV show. The regular cast of singers, the
Lucky Strike Gang, entertained viewers with "the
songs most heard on the air and most played on
the automatic coin machines," which the TV
audience was assured represented "an accurate,
authentic tabulation of America's taste in popular
music." The decisions were actually made by
Lucky Strike's ad agency, BBDO.
http://www.stayfreemagazine August 2007
1951
US
Spending on advertising time on US television
totaled $288m in 1952, an increase of 39 per
cent over the previous year.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2007
28 Jun 1951
US
Federal Trade Commission orders the American
Tobacco Company to stop false advertising
claims that Lucky Strike cigarettes are less
irritating to the throat than other brands or ar e
preferred two to one by tobacco experts.
Merritt, The Fifties
1952
Canada
Use of mountains for advertising purposes -
naming of Rockies by C. P. R.
Innis, Idea File, 15-66 (1952)
1952
International
Oral tradition important in appraising theatres -
books - sale dependent on conversation. All
advertising successful by making people talk
about goods.
Innis, Idea File, 16-21 (1952)
1952
US
U.S. advertisers spend a record $288 million on
TV time, an increase of 38.8 percent from 1951.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
Apr 1954
US
In April, groundwork is laid for the Television
Advertising Bureau. For the first time, television
is the leading medium for national advertising.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
1955
US
Immensely popular daytime radio show Queen
For A Day shifts to TV in January. Between radio
and TV, the show had a run of nearly 20 years,
although widely criticized as an exploitation of
human misery, wrapped in commercial plugs. At
the peak of popularity, NBC increased the show's
length from 30 to 45 minutes to gain time to sell
at the premium ad rate of $4,000 per minute.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
1957
US
In 1957, a congressional committee found that
nearly all of the dietary products were practically
worthless, and that the American public had been
paying over $100 million a year for phony latter-
day patent medicines.
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2007
12 Sep 1957
US
James Vicary (b.1915), a market researcher,
announced that he had invented a new way to get
people to buy things, whether they wanted them
or not. He called it subliminal advertising and
said that he had tested the process at a New
Jersey movie theater. In 1962 he admitted that
his results were fabricated in order to drum up
business for his market research firm. A
subliminal projector called a tachistoscope had
been used during World War II in training soldiers
to recognize enemy aircraft. A book published in
1898 (The New Psychology by E.W. Scripture)
laid out most of the principles of subliminal
response. [Note: Research itself can be a form of
advertising. - SM]
http://timelines.ws October 2008
1961
US
ABC inaugurated the 40-second break between
programs [on television], allowing its salesmen to
offer four 10-second advertising spots instead of
the three that fit into the old 30-second slot. The
other networks followed.
http://www.trivia-library.com September 2006
1965
UK
Cigarette ads banned on UK television.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2007
1967
US
Every day, wrote adman Leo Bogart in 1967, 4.2
billion advertising messages pour forth from 1,
754 daily newspapers, millions of others from 8,
151 weeklies, and 1.4 billion more each day from
4,147 magazines and periodicals. There are 3,
895 AM and 1,336 FM stations broadcasting an
average of 730,000 commercials per day and
770 television stations broadcast 100,000
commercials a day. Every day millions of people
are confronted with 330,000 outdoor billboards,
with 2,500,000 car cards and posters in buses,
subways and commuter trains, with 51,300,000
direct mail pieces and leaflets, and with billions
of display and promotion items.
http://www.trivia-library.com February 2009
1967
US
The FCC [in the US] orders that cigarette ads on
television, on radio and in print carry warnings
about the health dangers of smoking.
http://www.civilization.ca September 2006
14 Mar 1968
Europe
CBS TV suspended Radio Free Europe free
advertising because RFE didn't make it clear the
CIA sponsored it.
http://timelines.ws October 2008
1969
International
The metropolis today is a classroom; the ads are
its teachers. The traditional classroom is an
obsolete detention home, a feudal dungeon.
McLuhan, Counterblast, P. 12 (1969)
1969
US
In the U.S., FCC bans broadcast advertising of
tobacco.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
01 Jun 1969
Canada
Tobacco advertising was banned on Canadian
radio and TV.
http://timelines.ws February 2009
1970
International
Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy, two widely
respected economists, have written: "Far from
being a relatively unimportant feature of the
system, [advertising] has advanced to the status
of one of its decisive nerve centers. In its impact
on the economy, it is outranked only by
militarism. In all other aspects of social existence,
its all-pervasive influence is second to none."
http://www.trivia-library.com December 2006
31 Mar 1970
US
President Nixon signed legislation banning US
radio and television advertising of cigarettes. It
came into effect on 1 January 1971.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2008
1971
US
Roger Mudd's "Selling of the Pentagon," a
special documentary [on CBS] exposed the
Pentagon's use of propaganda for self-
promotion. A House Congressional Committee
wanted to have CBS cited for contempt for
refusing to reveal background material, but the
House itself backed the network. Vice-Pres.
Spiro Agnew called the show "disreputable."
http://www.trivia-library.com September 2006
1972
US
How big is the modern advertising business?
Advertising Age, the "National Magazine of
Marketing," reports that "Everybody who
advertised in 1972--manufacturing companies,
service operations, retailers, wholesalers,
distributors, associations, labor unions, schools,
churches, governments, politicians, individuals
placing want ads--spent an estimated $23 billion
for the privilege. "National advertisers expended
most of this enormous total--about $13.1 billion,
or 57 There are, in fact, more than 17,000
such advertisers in the U.S. The hundred largest
of these companies (ranging from Procter &
Gamble, with an expenditure of about $275
million, to the E. & J. Gallo Winery, with an outlay
of $13,300,000) invested $5.27 billion alone in
advertising media last year. Thus, less than 1
of all of America's national advertisers accounted
for 401f all national advertising dollars. "
http://www.trivia-library.com September 2006
1973
US
In CBS v. Democratic National Committee, the
Court ruled that broadcasters may refuse to sell
television advertising time for discussion of
controversial political issues.
http://www.csulb.edu August 2006
1974
Chile
The Government of Chile [under Pinochet] hired
J. Walter Thompson [advertising agency] to
promote a new and cleaner image of itself
around the world. [Note: could Iran purchase the
services of a US-based advertising office to
clean up its image now? - SM]
http://www.trivia-library.com February 2007
1974
International
The 1970s saw the emergence of the
multinational advertising agency/holding
company, with offices and affiliates all over the
world. The 10 largest advertising companies
based on sums they spent for their clients in
1974: 1) Denfsu Advertising (Japan) $907.7
million 2) J. Walter Thompson (U.S.) $867.5
million 3) Young and Rubicam International (U.S.)
$750.5 million 4) McCann-Erickson (U.S.)
$703.3 million 5) Leo Burnett Co. (U.S.) $577.7
million 6) Ted Bates (U.S.) $565.8 million 7)
Batten, Barton, Durstine and Osborn (U.S.)
$525.5 million 8) Ogilvy and Mather International
(U.S.) $523.7 million 9) Grey Advertising (U.S.)
$391.0 million 10) Doyle, Dane, Bernbach (U.S.)
$355.1 million.
http://www.trivia-library.com February 2007
1975
US
In Bigelow v. Virginia, the Supreme Court
overturned the conviction of a Virginia
newspaper editor who was found guilty of running
advertisements for a New York abortion referral
service.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
1976
US
RCA reported sales of over $5 billion in 1976,
with profits in excess of $150 million. Its
television network (including all affiliates) sold
over $600 million in advertising that year.
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2007
1977
Canada
The federal government passed Bill C-58 in
response to the recommendations of the 1970
Special Senate Committee on the Mass Media
(the Davey Committee). The bill amends Section
19 of the Income Tax Act to allow Canadian
advertisers to claim expenses for advertising
placed in periodicals which are at least 75 per
cent Canadian-owned, or on television stations
which are at least 80 per cent Canadian-owned.
http://www.media-awareness.ca/english
August 2006
1980
US
Tobacco Company Philip Morris allegedly paid
US$42,000 for its Marlboro brand logo to appear
22 times in the feature film Superman II
http://www.terramedia.co.uk April 2007
1981
US
In CBS v. FCC, the Supreme Court ruled that the
FCC may require broadcasters to sell airtime to
presidential and congressional candidates.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
1983
Canada
Trivial Pursuit was big as was MTV (Music
Television). Linda F. Pezzano (d.1999 at 54),
marketing consultant, invented the "viral
marketing concept" to publicize the Canadian
board game.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1983
US
The average amount spent on direct advertising
to US children in 1983 per child was $2.68. The
average amount in 1998 was $36.60.
Harper's Index
1984
US
From Florida, Radio Marti beams anti-Castro
propaganda to Cuba.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2008
1985
US
Guidelines for minimal amounts of non-
entertainment programming are abolished. FCC
guidelines on how much advertising can be
carried per hour are eliminated.
http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/mediatimelin
e.html October 2007
1986
Canada
Advertisers spent about C$8.3 billion [in Canada]
in the various media, up from nearly C$6.7 billion
in 1986. Two of the largest advertisers, General
Motors of Canada and Bell Canada Enterprises,
spent $178 million on advertising in Canada in
1995. Other big spenders are in the food,
automobile, retail, communication, beer, and soft
drink categories.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
October 2008
1986
US
NBC pushed advertising rates during The Cosby
Show to record levels of $350,000-$400,000 for
30 seconds. For the first time the network leads
in the prime-time ratings. However, all three
networks have trouble selling commercial time
during sports broadcasts.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk April 2008
1987
US
Paramount Home Video announced a promotion
deal on 15 January with Pepsi Cola to include a
30-second commercial for Diet Pepsi at the start
of the video release of Top Gun, which will sell for
$3 less than the usual consumer video price.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk April 2008
25 Jan 1987
US
American football's Super Bowl XXI was seen by
127m US viewers and set a new record for
advertising rates: $600,000 per 30 seconds.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk April 2008
1990
US
Television Marti joins Radio Marti in sending U.S.
propaganda to Cuba.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu October
2007
1992
US
Infomercials become a hot ad medium. National
Infomercial Marketing Association estimates
infomercials generate sales of $750 million,
more than double their revenues of 1988.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
1995
Canada
Governments have consistently been significant
advertisers; the various departments of the
federal government constituted the sixth largest
advertiser in Canada in 1995, spending $68
million; the Ontario and Québec governments
together spent $72 million.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia. com
February 2008
1995
US
Microsoft paid $3 to $12 million (depending on
who's doing the reporting) to use the Rolling
Stones' “Start Me Up” in a television commercial.
http://www.stayfreemagazine.org August
2006
1996
North America
Seagram began radio and television advertising
of liquor products, ending a prohibition that had
existed since 1948.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2008
06 May 1996
US
The CBS network announces that it will offer free
TV airtime to presidential candidates in the fall.
Fox made a similar offer in February, and other
networks are following suit.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 867
07 Nov 1996
US
The Distilled Spirits Council of the US reveals
that it will drop its voluntary ban on TV and radio
commercials that advertise spirits. The nations
four primary TV networks, ABC, CBS, NBC,a dn
Fox - state they will not begin airing national
advertisements of hard-liquor products.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 929
13 Nov 1996
US
Data show the Republican and Democratic
parties broadcast 1,397 hours worth of ads in the
US's 75 top media markets between April 1 and
November 4. The figure includes ads from the
presidential campaigns.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 931
1997
US
3 billion credit card solicitations were mailed to
Americans.
Harper's Index
08 Aug 1997
US
The FDA relaxes restrictions on radio and TV
advertising of prescription drugs.
Avasthia, Nineties, P. 1029
1998
International
Tired of trying to blur lines between content and
advertising, MTV [cable TV channel] made its
programming policy explicit; promising
companies more promotion with more ad
spending. MTV's top ad exec John Popkowski
dismisses what he calls arbitrary distinctions
between paid advertising and what most viewers
think of as programming. “Any and all exposure
on MTV is a valuable commodity,” he told the
Wall Street Journal. Advertising, in other words,
is programming. Same thing goes for MTV's new
challenger, Access Entertainment. In fact, all the
programming on the new music-themed cable
channel is co-produced by advertisers at record
labels, retailers, and magazine publishers.
Sample programming: Spin Television (from
Spin magazine); Inside Tracks (from Best Buy);
and Café Sound (from A&M Records). SFX
Entertainment took over the pop concert market,
controlling 22 of the nation's top 50 markets with
plans to operate stages in all 50. Envisioning live
concert audiences as neatly segmented, target
markets, the company plans to make its money
by pursuing more corporate sponsorships or
tours, introducing luxury boxes at amphitheaters,
and creating more spaces for advertising at
events.
http://www.stayfreemagazine.org July 2006
1998
International
To date, about 59 percent of on-line advertising -
estimated at $2 billion for 1998 - goes to a small
number of branded portals.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 268
1999
Brazil
The advertising images broadcast by television
are probably among the images most seen in the
contemporary world. This is also true in Brazil
where the advertising market totaled US$ 4.4
billion in 1999 which made it the sixth largest in
the world.
http://www.antropologia.ufsc.br June 2011
1999
International
Internet advertising broke the $2 billion mark and
headed toward $3 billion as the industry, under
prodding from Procter & Gamble, moved to
standardize all facets of the industry.
http://www.adage.com October 2008
1999
US
US$45bn spent on US TV advertising (US$14bn
to CBS, ABC and NBC).
htttp://www.caslon.com January 2008
2000
US
It is estimated that the US government spends
$11 million per year to broadcast anti-Castro TV
Marti to Cuba.
Harper's Index
12 Jun 2000
UK
Record advertising rates were set in the UK for
the half-time break in ITV's coverage of the
England v Portugal match in the Euro 2000
football tournament: around £340,000 for 30
seconds across the whole network.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2008
2001
International
On a superficial level, the media are in the
business of selling products to target audiences.
Less obviously, but arguably of greater
importance, the media in capitalist societies
reflect and amplify the entire system of
possessive individualism. The ways in which
such cultural reproduction and ideological work
takes place are many and varied. Among the
more obvious are persistent associations
between happiness, success, sexiness, and
conspicuous consumption. Each evening of
prime-time entertainment consists of a
bewildering variety of fast cars, high fashion,
cosmetics, and other desired objects.
Nesbitt-Larking, Politics, P. 187 (2001)
08 Feb 2001
Russia
In Russia the lower house voted to reduce
advertising interruptions for TV movies.
http://timelines.ws October 2008
2002
International
Advertising normally seeks to address its
targeted audience in ways that are safely
unprovocative, not in any way offensive or
bothersome to the group in question's self-image
and supposed key values. It tends to be socially
and culturally conservative, or at least conformist.
Advertising is normally a great deal about flattery
and adopts a sycophantic attitude, both to the
companies it works for and the audience to which
it speaks. These are all reasons for not liking
advertising as a genre and for being critical of
the ways in which the advertising business has in
many ways become a key player in social,
cultural and political affairs.
Gripsrud, Understanding, P. 189 (2002)
2004
UK
Online advertising in UK (£653.3m) overtakes
commercial radio advertising (£637.4m)
http://www.caslon.com January 2008
2004
US
$21 billion was spent on online ads in U.S. alone.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
2005
Ireland
Voluntary codes are agreed by Ireland's
broadcasting and cinema industries for
advertising of alcohol in December. A monitoring
body will report annually to the Department of
Health and Children. Alcohol advertising may not
be included in television programs aimed at
young people nor at times when more than a third
of the audience is under 18. In cinemas strong
drink may not be advertised and advertising for
other alcoholic drinks may not exceed more than
40 per cent of advertising minutage and may be
included only when at least 75 per cent of the
audience is 18 or over.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
2005
US
Kraft was the largest food company in the US
and spent some $90 million annually on
advertising directly to children.
http://timelines.ws December 2007
2006
US
Despite FCC regulations which supposedly limit
advertising to a maximum of 16 minutes per hour,
viewers now find themselves bombarded with
what seems to be an endless series of not only
commercial ads but also "billboards" lauding
advertisers at the opening and closing of each
show, network logos, public service spots,
network promotions, station promotions, and all
sorts of extra titles and credits. One recent air
check of the seven minutes between the end of
one show and the beginning of another revealed
a total of 37 different messages.
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2007
2006
US
First in its [NBC's] corporate mind is the selling of
"prime time" [on TV] (from 8:00 to 11:00 P.M.),
which commands up to $90,000 per minute from
advertisers (With about 30 percent of the profits
going to affiliates).
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2007
2006
US
Wal-Mart Stores' search for an agency to handle
its $578 million account is more like several
reviews in one. Not only isn't the retailer requiring
its general-market account to go with one holding
company, it's conducting three separate reviews
for its African-American/urban, Asian and
Hispanic accounts.
http://adage.com March 2007
22 Feb 2006
Russia
Russia's parliament, the State Duma, passes a
new Federal Advertising Statute, which reduces
the permitted volume of advertising on television.
Commercials may not be shown for tobacco or
alcoholic products, except for beer commercials,
which are permitted between 22:00 and 07:00.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2008
01 Jul 2006
Russia
Under the statute on advertising the daily volume
of advertising permitted on Russian television is
reduced from 20 per cent to 15 per cent,
including teleshopping.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2008
27 Jul 2006
US
An Arkansas judge approved a $90 million
settlement between Google Inc. and advertisers
who claimed improper billing for fraudulent clicks
on ads.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
Sep 2007
Brazil
Sao Paulo, Brazil, passed an ordinance banning
billboards effective as of January 1, 2008. Clear
Channel, the world's largest outdoor-advertising
firm, sued to have it overturned. [Note: this
represented an effort to improve the appearance
of the city.]
http://timelines.ws October 2006
15 Oct 2007
Europe
The EU granted final approval to the Audiovisual
Media Services Directive, which removes many
restrictions on television product placement.
Member states will have 2 years to adopt the new
rules.
http://timelines.ws November 2007
14 Nov 2007
Mexico
A broad electoral reform that infuriated Mexico's
broadcast industry by barring political parties
from buying radio and television advertisements
took effect.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
2008
Kenya
There are over 14 million mobile phones and only
4.5 television sets in country with a population of
over 34 million means that the media should look
at ways of how they can channel their content to
these mobile devices, according to a spokesman
in Kenya. (Dr. Boys)
http://www.aitecafrica.com/news/view/46
April 2011
2008
US
The price of democracy in America has risen in
recent years. Kantar Media, which tracks political
advertising, reckons $2.6 billion was spent on the
2008 general election—up from $1.7 billion four
years earlier.
http://www.economist.com/node/16381338?
story_id=16381338 January 2011
01 Jan 2008
Russia
The amount of advertising allowed per hour on
Russian television is reduced from 20 per cent to
15 per cent under the statute on advertising
passed in 2006.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
Advertising Timeline
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