Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
0031 BCE
Roman Empire
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio wrote De architectura, the
only surviving classical treatise on architecture,
between 31 and 27 BCE, while he was employed
as military engineer for the Emperor Augustus.
The work, which Vitruvius claimed to be the first
comprehensive study on its subject, comprised
ten books on the theory and practice of
architecture, which in ancient times
encompassed not only building construction but
also many aspects of mechanical engineering
including construction management, construction
engineering, chemical engineering, civil
engineering, materials engineering, mechanical
engineering, military engineering and urban
planning.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline
July 2010
0373
Europe
Between 373 and 500 A.D. European
architecture moved from the rectangular basilica
forms to the classically inspired Byzantine style.
http://architecture.about.com/od/earlychristia
nmedieval/Medieval_Architecture.htm
November 2010
0700
Europe
Heavier, stocky Romanesque architecture, with
rounded arches and other Roman features,
became popular between 700 and 1200 A.D.
http://architecture.about.com/od/earlychristia
nmedieval/Medieval_Architecture.htm
November 2010
0825
Italy
The Plan of Saint Gall (St. Gall), "the only
surviving major architectural drawing from the
roughly 700-year period between the fall of the
Roman Empire and the 13th century," dates from
this time.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline
July 2010
1486
Italy
Printer Eucharius Silber issues the editio
princeps of Vitruvius, De architectura in Rome
between 1486 and August 16, 1490. It was
edited by the Italian Renaissance humanist and
rhetorician Fra Giovanni Sulpizio da Veroli.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1500
Europe
During the 1500s, the famous Renaissance
architect Andrea Palladio awakened an interest
in the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.
Palladio's ideas became the model for
architecture in Europe for many centuries. In the
late 1700s and early 1800s, the newly-formed
United States drew upon classical ideals to
construct grand government buildings as well as
smaller private homes.
http://architecture.about.com/od/periodsstyle
s/g/neoclassical.htm November 2010
1500
Italy
The rebuilding of Rome in the 16th century under
the pontificate of Sixtus V transformed the
architectural vista of the city. The most successful
architect of the time was Carlo Maderno (1566-
1623) who designed the quintessentially early
Baroque façade of St. Peter's in 1603.
Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) was a
contemporary of Bernini and Maderno but his
best work is seen in the smaller churches such as
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.
Beckett, Story, P. 314
22 May 1511
Italy
Veronese architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and
classical scholar, Fra Giovanni Giocondo
publishes the first illustrated edition of Marcus
Vitruvius Pollio's De architectura in Venice at the
press of Giovanni Tacuino. The edition contains
136 woodcut text illustrations, woodcut initials
and a woodcut title-border.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
15 Jul 1521
Italy
Architect and architectural theorist Cesare
Cesariano, humanist Benedetto Giovio and and
Bono Mauro da Bergamo edit and publish the
first edition in Italian of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio's
De Architectura Libri Dece, translated by Cesare
Cesariano, in Como, Italy at the press of
Gottardo da Ponte.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1525
Spain
Spanish architects established the style of
Plateresque, as exemplified by the gateway of
the University of Salamanca.
http://timelines.ws May 2011
1531
Italy
"De Architecture" by Vitruvius (70-15BC) was
translated into Italian.
http://timelines.ws May 2011
1571
Italy
The Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (The
Laurentian Library of the Medici) in Florence, Italy,
designed by Michelangelo, is opened to the
public.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1590
Italy
Italian Architect Domenico Fontana publishes
Della transportatione dell'obelisco Vaticano. . . .
in Rome at the press of Domenico Basa. The
folio volume contains 2 engraved titles, both
signed by Natal Bonifacio, 35 full-page and 3
double-page engravings. It describes one of the
greatest engineering feats of the Renaissance --
the removal of the Vatican obelisk from its old
location behind the sacristy of St. Peter's, where
it had been since the reign of Caligula, to its
present location in the center of the Piazza of St.
Peter. The problem of transporting this 327 ton
and fragile stone tower had occupied Italian
engineers for many years, so that when Pope
Sixtus V appointed a council to consider ways
and means of moving the obelisk, nearly 500
men came to submit their plans.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1600
Europe
In Italy the Baroque style is reflected in opulent
and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and
extravagant ornamentation. In France, the highly
ornamented Baroque style combines with
Classical restraint. Russian aristorcrats were
impressed by Versailles in France, and
incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St.
Petersburg. Elements of the Baroque style are
found throughout Europe.
http://http://architecture.about.com/od/earlych
ristianmedieval/Medieval_Architecture.htm
November 2010
1600
Europe
In Italy the Baroque style is reflected in opulent
and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and
extravagant ornamentation. In France, the highly
ornamented Baroque style combines with
Classical restraint. Russian aristorcrats were
impressed by Versailles in France, and
incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St.
Petersburg. Elements of the Baroque style are
found throughout Europe.
http://http://architecture.about.com/od/earlych
ristianmedieval/Medieval_Architecture.htm
November 2010
1600
Europe
In Italy the Baroque style is reflected in opulent
and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and
extravagant ornamentation. In France, the highly
ornamented Baroque style combines with
Classical restraint. Russian aristorcrats were
impressed by Versailles in France, and
incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St.
Petersburg. Elements of the Baroque style are
found throughout Europe.
http://http://architecture.about.com/od/earlych
ristianmedieval/Medieval_Architecture.htm
November 2010
1759
UK
Dr. Samuel Johnson denounced advertisements
as over-exaggerated and false.
http://timelines.ws May 2011
1800
International
Concrete was known and used during the time of
the Roman Empire. Its use was forgotten until the
end of the eighteenth century, when it was
rediscovered and employed in the construction of
lighthouses.
Knobler, Visual, P. 297
1800
International
Concrete was known and used during the time of
the Roman Empire. Its use was forgotten until the
end of the eighteenth century, when it was
rediscovered and employed in the construction of
lighthouses.
Knobler, Visual, P. 297
1830
UK
The number of ads in British newspapers rises to
877,972 per annum.
http://www.ketupa.net October 2006
Oct 1849
US
Advertising in the New York Tribune doubled
between October 1849 and October 1850.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu January 2007
1853
UK
One of the earliest of photographers of
architecture per se was Philip Delamotte, an
artist, who documented the re-building of the
Crystal Palace in 1853-54.
http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/
February 2011
1858
France
One of the most daring examples of cast-iron
construction was the Bibliothèaue Nationale in
Paris, designed by Henri Labrouste and built
between 1858 and 1868. Throughout this
building, and particularly in the reading room, the
new potentials of cast iron were explored.
Knobler, Visual, P. 293
1885
Canada
The decade between 1885 and 1895 witnessed
the organizing and professionalizing of
architecture, its conversion to a recognizable
modern form. Architects in several provinces
federated into professional institutes with codes
of ethics and powers over training and
legislation. The Ontario Association of Architects
formed in 1889; similar bodies began in Québec
and BC in 1890-92. A professional journal,
Canadian Architect & Builder, began in 1888,
and the first architectural school in a Canadian
university opened at McGill in 1896.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/ind
ex.cfm?
PgNm=TCE&Params=a1ARTA0009252
December 2010
1892
France
The Frenchman François Hennebique applies for
a patent for reinforced concrete.
Blistène, History, P. 53
1900
France
The first concrete building by François
Hennebique.
Blistène, History, P. 53
1900
US
In the design of the Ward W. Willitts House in
Highland Park, Illinois, Frank Lloyd Wright
(1867–1959) creates the “Prairie Style,” a
modernist aesthetic for architecture and design
that complements the Midwestern landscape.
http://eartfair.com/blog/timeline-of-art-history-
united-states-canada August 2010
1901
US
Frank Lloyd Wright starts to evolve his Prairie
House type.
Blistène, History, P. 53
1920
US
American theatre architecture peaked in the
1920’s. Hundreds of elaborate movie palaces
were built across the United States in towns both
large and small. Often these theatres were
constructed in an atmospheric style. They
resembled Italian piazzas Grecian ruins, and
Moorish courtyards. As patrons found their seats,
Corinthian columns, classical facades, and
tastefully draped statues of coy Roman
goddesses flanked them. Mosaic tiled fountains
sang in the lobbies and coming feature posters
were hung in gilded frames. The Italian and
Spanish styles were very popular, and many of
the remaining theaters were built with those
contrivances. However, a single historic
atmospheric theatre stands out among the
dozens listed on the National Register of Historic
Places and on the rolls of the Theatre Historical
Society of America --- Bellefontaine's historic
Holland Theatre.
http://www.thehollandtheatre.org/history.html
April 2011
1923
US
American real estate developer J. C. Nichols
builds the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City,
Missouri - the world's first shopping center.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1924
Germany
Weimar: the authorities close the Bauhaus for the
first time.
Blistène, History, P. 66
1928
International
Henry-Russell Hitchcock writes about the
International Style in the journal Hound and Horn,
and then in Modern Architecture, Romanticism
and Regeneration, published in 1929.
Blistène, History, P. 101
1928
Switzerland
Switzerland: CIAM (Congrès Internationaux
d'Architecture Moderne
Blistène, History, P. 101
1929
Spain
Barcelona: creation of the GATEPAC group
(Group of Catalan Artists and Technicians for the
Progress of Contemporary Architecture)
centered around the work of José Luis Sert.
Blistène, History, P. 101
1932
US
The International Style exhibition opens at the
Museum of Modern Art, New York. Curated by
architect Philip Johnson (born 1906) and art
historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock (1903–1987),
it introduces an American audience to recent
developments in European modernist
architecture.
http://eartfair.com/blog/timeline-of-art-history-
united-states-canada August 2010
1933
UK
London: MARS (Modern Architectural Research
Group) established.
Blistène, History, P. 102
1951
Egypt
In Egypt the power of the absolute monarchy
reflected in the monumental architecture of the
pyramids and in sculpture was offset by the
power of the priesthood based on a complex
system of writing and the use of papyrus.
Innis, Bias of Communication, P. 66 (1951)
1951
Europe
Knowledge of architecture imported from
Constantinople and adaptation of buildings to
northern conditions led to the wave of
construction of Gothic cathedrals from 1150 to
1250. With the cathedral came an improvement
in various arts such as stained glass and
counterpoint music.
Innis, Bias of Communication, P. 19 (1951)
1951
Near East
A concern with problems of space and time
appears to have marked the beginnings of
civilization in Egypt and Mesopotamia. A change
from a pre-dynastic society, or a precise
recognition of time, in both regions appears to
have coincided with writing, monumental
architecture, and sculpture.
Innis, Bias of Communication, P. 92 (1951)
1952
England
Ely Cathedral - combination of Norman and
Gothic but without skill of French at Chartres in
stone sculpture -hence resort to painting on
ceiling to elaborate wood carving.
Innis, Idea File, 27-40 (1952)
1952
International
Balloon frame - cheap nails 1828-1850 thin studs,
unskilled labour instead of exacting mortar and
tenon. Danger of literary architectural education
evident in destruction of principles of Chicago
school (p. 314). [Note: reference to Gideon,
Space, Time and Architecture] Painter showed
way to architecture in Europe - cubist, space,
time development after 1910. Rational
geometrical versus irrational and organic
methods of mastering environment. Country
outside the city - Versailles, Industrialism -
squares in London, Haussman's rue corridor in
Paris after 1850. Cubist painting and destruction
of perspective enlarging of space - emergence of
slab surface - bridges, Rockerfeller Center.
Separation of residential, traffic, pedestrians, i.e.
breakdown of perspective - ferroconcrete and
glass. Height and greenery. Does this involve
wiping out of time, i.e. fixed character in relation
to perspective, emphasis on speed?
Innis, Idea File, 28-99 (1952)
01 Aug 1953
US
First aluminium-faced structure, the Alcoa
Building, is completed in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
Merritt, The Fifties
01 Aug 1953
US
First aluminium-faced structure, the Alcoa
Building, is completed in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
Merritt, The Fifties
1954
Belgium
The pavilion designed for the Philips Corporation
remains one of the most interesting of the
Belgium 1954 World Fair exhibition. Philips
Electronics (a major international producer of
items ranging from light bulbs to loudspeakers
and tape recorders) decided to commission a
unique multimedia work of art for the exhibition
instead of the typical trade show display of
products. Philips commissioned Le Corbusier to
design a pavilion to house a unique multimedia
exhibit that combined a musical composition by
the modern composer Edgard Varèse titled
Poèm Èlectronique with a collage and film by
Philippe Agostini. Le Corbusier created a
striking design for the pavilion combining a
hyperbolic paraboloid and a conic section. The
building consisted of a thin shell of concrete
sprayed on a tensile structure of steel cables
surrounding an open plan on the interior (the
expressive nature of Le Corbusier's design
recalls his Chapel [1955] at Ronchamp).
Varèse's Entries A-F 793 eight-minute
composition filled the unique acoustics of the
structure
http://architectural-
world.blogspot.com/2008/05/expo-1958-
brussels.html
1954
Belgium
The pavilion designed for the Philips Corporation
remains one of the most interesting of the
Belgium 1954 World Fair exhibition. Philips
Electronics (a major international producer of
items ranging from light bulbs to loudspeakers
and tape recorders) decided to commission a
unique multimedia work of art for the exhibition
instead of the typical trade show display of
products. Philips commissioned Le Corbusier to
design a pavilion to house a unique multimedia
exhibit that combined a musical composition by
the modern composer Edgard Varèse titled
Poèm Èlectronique with a collage and film by
Philippe Agostini. Le Corbusier created a
striking design for the pavilion combining a
hyperbolic paraboloid and a conic section. The
building consisted of a thin shell of concrete
sprayed on a tensile structure of steel cables
surrounding an open plan on the interior (the
expressive nature of Le Corbusier's design
recalls his Chapel [1955] at Ronchamp).
Varèse's Entries A-F 793 eight-minute
composition filled the unique acoustics of the
structure
http://architectural-
world.blogspot.com/2008/05/expo-1958-
brussels.html
1958
US
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum,
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959),
opens in New York. Wright had begun working on
the commission for a building to house the
Guggenheim’s collection of modernist art in
1943. The museum represents a sculpturally and
spatially rich use of concrete.
http://eartfair.com/blog/timeline-of-art-history-
united-states-canada August 2010
1958
US
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum,
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959),
opens in New York. Wright had begun working on
the commission for a building to house the
Guggenheim’s collection of modernist art in
1943. The museum represents a sculpturally and
spatially rich use of concrete.
http://eartfair.com/blog/timeline-of-art-history-
united-states-canada August 2010
09 Jan 1965
US
US says it plans to restore Independence Hall in
Philadelphia to its original 1776 style.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
26 Aug 1969
US
New York City landmarks panel bars a
skyscraper over Grand Central Station.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
15 Nov 1969
India
US architect Buckminster Fuller gives a lecture
on planetary planning in New Delhi.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1970
US
Architect and computer scientist Nicholas
Negroponte of MIT publishes The Architecture
Machine. Negroponte's pioneering and forward-
looking book described early research on
computer-aided design, and in so doing covered
early work on human-computer interaction,
artificial intelligence, and computer graphics. It
contained a large number of illustrations.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1970
US
Architect and computer scientist Nicholas
Negroponte of MIT publishes The Architecture
Machine. Negroponte's pioneering and forward-
looking book described early research on
computer-aided design, and in so doing covered
early work on human-computer interaction,
artificial intelligence, and computer graphics. It
contained a large number of illustrations.
http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/timeline/
index.php July 2010
1984
Canada
The CN Tower is only a visible sign of what is
happening to us, invisibly and imperceptibly as
we are processed through the new information
order of technological society.
Kroker, Technology, P. 9-10 (1984)
1984
Canada
There exists in every major city, from Montreal
and Halifax to Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver
aggressive displays of the architecture of hi-tech:
building designs which say everything about the
intraction of technology in the Canadian identity,
and symbolize how deeply and intensely the
Canadian fate is entangled with the dynamic
momentum of the technological experience in
North America.
Kroker, Technology, P. 9 (1984)
2003
International
In accord with the thought that many social
institutions have a carceral, or prison-like, quality
to the, Foucault observed that one of the
essentials functions of a prison-keeper is that of
keeping the prisoners under surveillance. Within
this context, Foucault gave an extended
discussion of a remarkable architectural design
for a perfect prison by the English philosopher,
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). This 'panopitcon'
(all-seeing device) was a doughnut-shaped
building at whose center was located an
observation tower - one that allowed its occupant
to keep simultaneous watch on all the cells in the
surrounding dormitories. Unlike the dark, private,
dungeons of the old days, the prisoners' cells
were to be completely illuminated for the
purposes of perpetual monitoring 'like so many
cages, so many small theatres, in which each
actor is alone, perfectly individualized and
constantly visible. The goal was 'to induce in the
inmate a state of conscious and permanent
visibility that assures the automatic functioning of
power.' Here, the observational standpoint's
power tends toward an almost superhuman
magnitude since it intends to survey, record,
control and assess, everyone's movements at
once. Since the inmate is totally seen, while not
being able to see the observer, and since the
observer can always see everything without ever
being seen, the inmate always feels the pressure
of the observer's power, whether or not he or she
is actually being observed. [Note: there are some
similarities between this design and modern
"open office" designs. - SM]
Wicks, Modern, P. 232 (2003)
Architecture Timeline
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