Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
2400 BCE
Syria
Archives of Ebla (present-day Tell Mardikh)
ultimately containing more than 15,000 clay
tablets.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
2100 BCE
Mesopotamia
The archives of Ur in Mesopotamia, birthplace of
Abraham, are established.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1300 BCE
Greece
King Nestor at Pylos (Greece) has a palace
archives containing Linear B rolls.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1077 BCE
Assyria
Assyrian archive at Ashur contains legal
collection called Middle Assyrian Laws.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
0409 BCE
Greece
409-405 BCE - Metroon in Athens established
as state archives building.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
0197 BCE
Turkey
King Eumenes II of Pergamum in Asia Minor
establishes the Persian Archives, later stolen by
Marc Antony and transferred to the Library at
Alexandria.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
0046
Roman Empire
Emperor Claudius renovates the Tabularum in
Rome.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
0066
Palestine
Jewish Temple archives set on fire to destroy
evidence of the debt owed by Jerusalem's poor.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
0070
Palestine
Romans succeed in burning the Jewish Temple
archives.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
06 Aug 0258
Italy
St. Lawrence the Deacon, one of the patron
saints of archivists, is murdered, purportedly by
being burned to death on a giant gridiron. His
feast day is honored by archivists the world over
by the eating of cold cuts (meats), in honor of the
method he died. He protected the sacred books
of the Church of Rome (probably including
baptismal & marriage registers) from being
sezied by the pagan Roman authorities.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
11 Dec 0366
Roman Empire
11 Dec 366-384 According to J.N.D. Kelly, St.
Damasus, Pope, organized and re-housed the
papal archives. Further, Joseph Tylenda
indicates that, during his pontificate, Latin
became the principle liturgical language in
Rome. St. Damasus also provided housing for
the papal archives and commissioned St.
Jerome, his secretary, to revise the then-existing
Latin translation of the New Testament.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1227
Korea
King Gojong of Koryo Dynasty completed the
History Annals of King Myongjong and built two
History Archives in Gaesung, its capital city, and
Haeinsa Temple located at the southeast part of
the country to preserve two copies of 187
volumes of the History Annals of Koryo Dynasty.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1439
Korea
King Sejong built two more History Archives in
Jeonju and Sungju. Each History Archives had
same copies of the Annals of kings. During the
Japanese invasion during 1592-1598, all the
royal archives in History Archives except Jeonju
were burnt down. In 1606, four more History
Archives were built and four more copies of the
Annals were made. They were preserved in five
re-built History Archives throughout the country
(Five History Archives System). While only one
History Archives building in Seoul survived, three
copies of the Annals of Chosun Dynasty (2,077
volumes in South Korea designated as the
Memory of the World by UNESCO) survived and
they are still available for research both in North
and South Korea.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1448
Italy
Pope Nicholas V transferred around 350 Greek,
Latin and Hebrew codices acquired by his
predecessors to the Vatican. In earlier times,
collections had been kept at the Lateran Palace
in Rome (until the end of the 13th century) and at
Avignon (during the years Popes resided in that
French city).
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1571
Germany
The earliest archival manual of Jacob von
Rammingen is printed in Heidelberg, Germany,
together with a more detailed book from 1570
about the same subject. This literature is of a
theoretical nature.
http://kia.com/wiki/History_of_Archives,
_Recordkeeping,_and_Records February
2011
1574
Spain
Philip II of Spain commissioned the architect
Juan de Herrera the design of a new expanded
Archivo de Simancas which is probably the first
purpose-built national archive in the world that
remains in the same building. The first rules and
archival procedures were issued on 24 August
1588.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1586
UK
Arthur Agarde, Sir Robert Coton, and William
Camden found the Society of Antiquaries in
London.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1642
England
The Town Clerk of the City of London is made
responsible for the safe-keeping of the city
corporation's records. Liber Dunthorne, a
custumal compiled by William Dunthorne (Town
Clerk 1461-90) is evidence of this. Even before
this, John Carpenter (Town Clerk 1417-38) had
compiled custumals as precedents for his
successors.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1772
UK
The General Register House in Edinburgh is
designed by Robert Adam as a repository for the
public records of Scotland.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1838
Brazil
The Brazilian National Archives (in Portuguese:
Arquivo Nacional) were created in 1838 under
the name of Imperial Public Archives.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_Nationa
l_Archives June 2011
1852
Italy
1852-55 - Central State Archives of the Granducy
of Tuscany established in Florence (Italy) and its
fonds arranged by Francesco Bonaini according
to the principle of provenance.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1866
Korea
The French army invaded the Gyujanggak Annex,
one of the History Archives located in Ganghwa
Island, Korea, where 6,130 volumes (1,042
kinds) of the royal treasure-class archives of
Chosun Dynasty were preserved. The French
army plundered 345 volumes of the archives,
which are now held at the National Library of
France in Paris. The French army burnt the rest
of the archives as well as the archives building
when they retreated.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1894
US
A motion picture deposit was begun at the
Library of Congress.
Loucks-DiMatteo, History
1903
Canada
Archives of Ontario founded.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1930
International
Little attention was given to film preservation until
the 1930s when archives such as the National
Film Library in London, the Cinémathèque
Française in Paris and the Museum of Modern
Art in New York began to collect prints of film for
posterity.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 19
1936
International
In 1898 Polish photographer and cameraman
Boleslaw Matuszewski developed the idea of
creating national film archives. But first national
film archives were founded in 1935 in London
and New York, and in 1936 - in France. These
three organizations along with the Berlin National
Film Archive formed in 1938 the International
Federation of Film Archives (FIAF).
http://bnf.bg/en/film_library/history/ December
2010
1950
US
US National Records Management Council
publishes the first Guide to Federal Records
Retention.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
07 Dec 1966
Italy
Vatican opens its 1846-1878 archives to
scholars.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1969
US
The National Archives and Records Service
(NARS) (now NARA) begins publication of
Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives.
(RJ)
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1970
Romania
Aurelian Sacerdoteanu published Archivistica,
the first Romanian manual for archival science.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
Dec 1971
Romania
Romania adopted the Decree 472 on the
National Archival Fond.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1985
US
National Archives becomes an independent
federal agency.
http://www.culturescope.ca/american-
timelines/timeline-1980_en.htm August 2006
1995
US
In Los Angeles, California the Getty Research
Institute agreed to fund a study survey L.A. as
Subject: The Transformative Culture of Los
Angeles Communities. LA as Subject would
initiate collaborative partnerships with local
universities, cultural institutions, and communities
to identify and help coordinate the less visible
archives and collections of the Los Angeles
region. The initiative would develop new resource
tools to make the material culture of little known
archives and collections more accessible to
scholars, researchers, and community historians
producing academic, artistic and community
work in public and invitational forums through
panels, lectures, and symposia to examine
historical and contemporary topics on Los
Angeles.
http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_
Archives,_Recordkeeping,_and_Records
February 2011
1996
International
The question of the archive is not a question of
the past. It is not the question of a concept
dealing with the past that might already be at our
disposal. An archivable concept of the archive. It
is a question of the future, the question of the
future itself, the question of a response, of a
promise, and of a responsibility for tomorrow.
The archive, if we want to know what that will
have meant, we will only know in times to come;
not tomorrow, but in times to come. Later on or
perhaps never.
Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever, University
of Chicago Press, 1996; Mal d'Archive: une
Impression Freudienne, Editions Galilee,
1995. Found in:
http://www.derridathemovie.com/readings.ht
ml
Archives Timeline
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