Start Date
Category
Place
Notes
Source
1862
Broadcasting
US
With Morrill Act, Congress endows state
universities with land grants, creating
what some observers believe was
philosophical precedent for public
broadcasting and its public funding.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-through1940s.shtml
December 2010
1920
Broadcasting
US
Educational institutions were arguably
the 'true pioneers' of U.S. broadcasting,
establishing over 100 stations in the
early 1920s.
McChesney, Rich, P. 191
1921
Broadcasting
US
Federal government issues first license
to an educational institution, Latter-day
Saints University in Salt Lake City.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-through1940s.shtml
December 2010
1922
Broadcasting
UK
(BBC) Receiving licenses were
introduced and grew rapidly in numbers
from half a million at the end of 1922 to
two million by 1926 and four and a half
million by 1931.
Oxford Companion to Music
1922
Broadcasting
UK
British Broadcasting Company formed
by radio manufacturers. BBC formed as
commercial radio broadcaster.
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
1924
Broadcasting
US
Dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice
& Kellog (USA).
http://www.magicdragon.com/Ultimat
eSF/timeline1930.html February
2011
1925
Broadcasting
UK
UK government nationalizes BBC.
{Note: in part as reaction to what are
seen as excesses in private
broadcasting environment in US - SM]
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
18 Mar 1925
Broadcasting
International
The BBC in London organized the first
international broadcasting convention. It
leads to the formation of the International
Broadcasting Union (IBU), surviving until
the EBU was formed in 1950.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October
2008
12 Nov 1925
Broadcasting
US
Forerunner of PBS and NPR formed:
Association of College and University
Broadcasting Stations (ACUBS). It later
becomes National Association of
Educational Broadcasters.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-through1940s.shtml
December 2010
1926
Broadcasting
Japan
Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) - Japan
Broadcasting Corporation - established
on BBC model.
http://www.ketupa.net October 2008
1926
Broadcasting
UK
British Broadcasting Corporation was
established as a public service body,
funded by license fee paid by owners of
radio sets.
http://timlines.ws January 2007
11 Mar 1927
Broadcasting
Netherlands
The history of Dutch international radio
begins on 11 March 1927 with
shortwave broadcasts to the Dutch East
Indies via the PCJ shortwave transmitter
at the Philips Laboratories in
Eindhoven. Philips understood the
possibilities of what was then a new
medium and developed a market for
shortwave broadcasters and receivers.
Philips wanted good quality
programmes and a strong political and
economic base. On the evening of 31
March 1927, the company scored a
publicity coup when Queen Wilhelmina
addressed the colonial population via
the PCJ transmitter.
http://www.rnw.nl/english/info/history-
radio-netherlands-worldwide
December 2010
1928
Broadcasting
Canada
Royal Commission on Broadcasting
(Aird Commission).
http://www.ketupa.net November
2008
1930
Broadcasting
UK
The BBC began regular television
transmissions.
http://www.civilization.ca August
2006
1930
Broadcasting
US
Carnegie Corporation of New York, with
NBC, creates National Advisory Council
on Radio in Education (NACRE) to
promote Cooperation Doctrine-alliances
between commercial radio and
educators.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-through1940s.shtml
December 2010
1931
Broadcasting
Angola
Dating back to 1931, Angola's
broadcast media is one of the oldest on
the continent.
http://www.filmbirth.com/angola.html
April 2011
1932
Broadcasting
Canada
First Parliamentary Committee on
Broadcasting.
http://www.ketupa.net September
2006
19 Dec 1932
Broadcasting
UK
The British Broadcasting Corp. began
transmitting overseas with its "Empire
Service" to Australia.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1933
Broadcasting
Germany
Goebbels uses the fairness doctrine for
printed press to solidify media into
monolith supporting the Third Reich.
http://www.csulb.edu March 2007
30 Jan 1933
Broadcasting
Germany
The first Volks Empfänger, the three-
valve VE301 (the number 301 signified
the 30th January 1933, the day Hitler
took power in Germany), was produced
in 1933. The radio sold for 76
Reichsmarks, around half the price of a
typical radio at the time. It was a simple
two band set: few Volksempfänger
came with short wave, and they
generally had limited sensitivity so as to
receive only local stations, as the Nazis
were worried listeners could pick up
broadcasts from the Soviet Union or
Britain. The dials were only marked with
German stations.
http://www.transdiffusion.org/rmc/feat
ures/hitlers_radio.php August 2007
1934
Broadcasting
US
The Federal Radio Act [in US] is
rewritten as the Communications Act.
The FCC is created; equal access and
equal opportunities provisions are
strengthened.
http://www.csulb.edu September
2006
19 Jun 1934
Broadcasting
US
The Communications Act was signed. It
established the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) to
supervise radio, telegraph, and
telephone communications.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1935
Broadcasting
Canada
A little known, but important event
occurred during the federal election
campaign in 1935. A series of political
announcements, paid for by the
Conservative Party, but not publicly
acknowledged or announced as such,
appeared on the radio.” Note: This
created a scandal and led to a new
Communication Act introduced by the
liberals in 1936 - the new CBC, which
replaced the CRBC, had more
independence from the current
government. - SM
Nesbitt-Larking, Politics, P. 61
1935
Broadcasting
Ghana
Broadcasting in Ghana began as a
department of the Ministry of Information
when it started in 1935. The ministry
was responsible for the formulation of
national mass communication policies
and for ensuring the full and effective
use of the mass media for the
dissemination of information, and for
economic and social development of the
nation.
http://chapterone.freewebspace.com
/index.html May 2011
Mar 1935
Broadcasting
Germany
The German Reichpost (Post Office)
began the "first television broadcasting
service in the world". However, the
quality was poor and receivers were
almost non-existent.
http://timelines.ws September 2006
1936
Broadcasting
Canada
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
established.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
02 Nov 1936
Broadcasting
Canada
The Canadian Broadcasting Act
replaced the CRBC with a Crown
Corporation, the CBC. CBC took over
CRBC staff and facilities (eight publicly
owned or leased stations and 14 private
affiliates).
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history October 2007
1938
Broadcasting
UK
BBC creates the first science fiction
television program.
http://www.computerhope.com/histor
y/190040.htm November 2010
26 Jan 1938
Broadcasting
US
FCC establishes new class of non-
commercial educational radio stations
in high-frequency band.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-through1940s.shtml
December 2010
1941
Broadcasting
US
FCC releases its Report on Chain
Broadcasting. The report is critical of
the growth of broadcast networks and
proposes that NBC sell off one of its two
networks - NBC Red & NBC Blue.
http://www.cjr.org September 2007
1941
Broadcasting
US
In the "Mayflower" decision, FCC rules
that broadcasters cannot editorialize.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
August 2006
1941
Broadcasting
US
Local Radio Ownership Rule, National
TV Ownership Rule enacted. A
broadcaster cannot own television
stations that reach more than 351f the
nation's homes.
http://www.pbs.org/now/
politics/mediatimeline.html August
2010
1941
Broadcasting
US
The FCC hands down its Mayflower
decision in which a licensee was
granted renewal contingent upon its
agreement not to editorialize. "The
broadcaster cannot be an advocate."
http://www.csulb.edu November
2008
1943
Broadcasting
Canada
The English School Broadcasts
Department was created.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history June 2007
1943
Broadcasting
US
After losing court battles with the FCC
over the demand to divest one off its
networks, RCA sells off NBC Blue
Network to Edward Noble, lifesavers
candy creator. Network eventually
becomes ABC.
http://www.cjr.org March 2007
1943
Broadcasting
US
In National Broadcasting Co. v. U.S., the
[Supreme] Court ruled that content rules
over broadcasters were constitutional.
http://www.csulb.edu August 2007
25 Feb 1945
Broadcasting
Canada
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's
International Service officially opened.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July
2007
1946
Broadcasting
Germany
Following the war and German partition,
each Germany developed its own
international broadcasting station:
Deutsche Welle, using studios in
Cologne, West Germany, and Radio
Berlin International (RBI) in East
Germany. RBI's broadcasts ceased
shortly before the reunification of
Germany on October 3, 1990, and
Deutsche Welle took over its
transmitters and frequencies.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internatio
nal_broadcast#World_War_II
February 2010
1946
Broadcasting
UK
Radio license increased to £1 with
combined television and radio license at
£2.
http://www.ketupa.net February 2009
1947
Broadcasting
Australia
ABC's independent national news
service inaugurated.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1947
Broadcasting
Canada
CBC presented a 15-year plan for the
development of television in Canada.
http://www.cbc.radio-
Canada.ca/history September 2006
1948
Broadcasting
Australia
Amendments to Broadcasting Act result
in direct funding by Commonwealth
rather than from license fees.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1949
Broadcasting
Canada
The CBC acquired the facilities and
staff of the Broadcasting Corporation of
Newfoundland, as the province joined
the Confederation.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history September 2006
1949
Broadcasting
US
In order to correct the Mayflower
decision and provide guidelines for
serving the public interest, the FCC
promulgates the Fairness Doctrine. It
requires broadcasters to cover
important controversial issues and to
provide an opportunity for contrasting
views on those issues.
http://www.csulb.edu January 2007
1950
Broadcasting
Japan
NHK was given autonomous status
under 1950 broadcast legislation.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1950
Broadcasting
US
FCC Fairness Doctrine reversed the
1941 Mayflower; stations must carry
opinions.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
September 2006
1951
Broadcasting
Canada
The Massey Commission endorsed a
regulatory role of CBC.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history January 2007
05 Aug 1951
Broadcasting
US
Ford Foundation grants $1.2 million for
a radio and television workshop to
produce cultural and public service
programs on commercial networks.
Merritt, The Fifties
1952
Broadcasting
Ghana
In 1952, the then colonial government
appointed a commission to advise it on
ways of improving and developing
broadcasting. It was to investigate
among other things the establishment
and maintenance of a statutory
corporation to assume direction and
control of broadcasting services as was
the case in parent country Britain[3]. As
a result of the Commission's report, a
new broadcasting system, the national
service of the Gold Coast Broadcasting
System was set up in 1954.
http://chapterone.freewebspace.com
/index.html May 2011
29 Jul 1952
Broadcasting
US
A federal court in Chicago rules that a
broadcasting company is not liable for a
guest's ad-lib remarks unless malice or
negligence on the station's part if
proven.
Merritt, The Fifties
1953
Broadcasting
Canada
The [Canadian] government stopped
collecting the annual license fee [from
CBC stations] in 1953, funding the CBC
directly from public funds and by the mid-
1970s; advertising had been dropped
entirely from CBC radio stations.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.
com January 2007
09 Feb 1953
Broadcasting
US
FCC approves the merger of United
Paramount Theatres Inc and the
American Broadcasting Co. The merger,
largest in radio history, joins companies
with combined assets of about $150
million.
Merritt, The Fifties
13 May 1953
Broadcasting
US
Pittsburgh grants a permit to the nation's
first community-supported television
station, WQED, Channel 13.
Merritt, The Fifties
07 Sep 1954
Broadcasting
US
FCC issues regulations requiring radio
and TV stations to give equal treatment
to all legally qualified candidates for the
same political office and to charge them
no more than commercial rates for air
time and facilities.
Merritt, The FIfties
1955
Broadcasting
Canada
In 1955 with this fear in mind, the
government appointed Robert Fowler to
chair a Royal Commission that is known
as the Fowler Commission. The Fowler
Commission reported that the majority
of Canadian stations, including the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,
used not Canadian material, but
American. It was the Commission's
belief that a quota system should be
enacted to protect Canadian content on
the airwaves.
http://wapedia.mobi/en/Canadian_cu
ltural_protectionism February 2011
1955
Broadcasting
Canada
Royal Commission on Broadcasting
appointed (Fowler Commission).
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1957
Broadcasting
Canada
The Fowler Commission on
Broadcasting recommends transferring
regulatory authority from CBC to a
separate body.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history September 2007
1957
Broadcasting
Ghana
When the Gold Coast became Ghana in
1957 the Gold Coast Broadcast System
became the Ghana Broadcasting
System or as it was popularly known as
Radio Ghana.
http://chapterone.freewebspace.com
/index.html May 2011
09 Jun 1957
Broadcasting
US
A House Anti-trust subcommittee
charges that the FCC has been lax in
guarding the radio and TV industry from
possible monopolization.
Merritt, The Fifties
1958
Broadcasting
Canada
The new Broadcasting Act established
the Board of Broadcast Governors
(BBG) to regulate all Canadian
broadcasting.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history February 2007
11 Oct 1958
Broadcasting
US
In a new guideline interpreting the 'equal
time clause' the FCC says radio and TV
stations that give air time to a political
candidate must give equal time to any
legally qualified rival candidate.
Merritt, The Fifties
1959
Broadcasting
US
In 1959 Congress enacted the Fairness
Doctrine by amending the
Communication Act of 1934 to enshrine
the Fairness Doctrine into law. The
pertinent portion of the act now reads,
"A broadcast licensee shall afford
reasonable opportunity for discussion of
conflicting views on matters of public
importance."
http://www.historycommons.org/timeli
ne.jsp?
military_analysts_tmln_general_even
ts=military_analysts_tmln_fairness_d
octrine&timeline=military_analysts_t
mln December 2010
1959
Broadcasting
US
Senator Proxmire attempts to codify the
Fairness Doctrine. Most experts believe
him successful until 1986.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
28 Jul 1959
Broadcasting
US
Senate passes and send to the House a
bill exempting radio and TV news show
from an RCC requirement that all
competing political candidates be given
equal time if any one of them appears
on a broadcast.
Merritt, The Fifties
14 Sep 1959
Broadcasting
US
Eisenhower signs a bill exempting radio
and TV news from the equal time
requirement.
Merritt, The Fifties
19 Jan 1960
Broadcasting
US
Robert Montgomery actor producer and
White House advisor on Presidential
telecasts, testifies to the FCC that
reports of quiz-show fixing and payola
were widespread within the
broadcasting industry long before the
charges were made public.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
25 Jan 1960
Broadcasting
US
Donald H. McGannon, President of
Westinghouse Broadcasting Company
and Chairman of the National
Association of Broadcasters TV code
committee recommends the enactment
of legislation providing stiff penalties for
offering or accepting payola bribes.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
10 Mar 1960
Broadcasting
US
FCC Chairman Charles Doerfer resigns
under pressure after admitting to a
House subcommittee that he had
accepted a vacation cruise on the yacht
of George B. Storer owner of 12 TV and
radio stations. FCC member Frederick
W. Ford will succeed Doerfer as
chairman.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
29 Apr 1960
Broadcasting
US
TV disc jockey Dick Clark tells a special
House subcommittee that he never
knowingly accepted payola despite
committee data indicating that he often
played records from companies in which
he had a financial interest.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
03 May 1960
Broadcasting
US
A special House committee
investigating ethics reports that a mail
survey it conducted showed that record
companies had paid over $200,000 in
payola to 207 disc jockeys in 42 cities.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
19 Jul 1960
Broadcasting
US
FTC is reported to have charged 12
more record distributors with giving
payola to disc jockeys since July 5.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
30 Aug 1960
Broadcasting
US
Congress passes a broadcast
disclosure bill designed to end payola
and quiz show rigging.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
21 Mar 1961
Broadcasting
US
By a vote of 67-13 the Senate passes
and send to the House a bill authorizing
$1 million in grants to each state over
five years to buy equipment for
educational TV broadcasts.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
19 Apr 1962
Broadcasting
US
An 11-day FCC inquiry into radio and
TV broadcasting concludes in Chicago
after hearing testimony from 120
witnesses. FCC examiner Robert E.
Lee tells reports that the hearings
revealed that local programming needs
are not being met by the national
networks.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1963
Broadcasting
US
The FCC establishes the Cullman
Doctrine which holds that a station
broadcasting a sponsored
advertisement or program on one side
of a controversial issue thereafter may
not refuse to present the opposing
viewpoint merely because the station
could not obtain paid sponsorship for
the opposition presentation.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
19 Sep 1964
Broadcasting
US
President Johnson signs a general
appropriations bill (HR 10309) which
allocates $13 million for education TV
facilities.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1967
Broadcasting
US
US Public Broadcasting Act.
http://www.caslon.com February
2007
10 Jan 1967
Broadcasting
US
National Educational Television
(forerunner of Public Broadcasting
Service) operated as a true network for
the first time as it carried President
Johnson's State of the Union address.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
20 May 1967
Broadcasting
UK
BBC banned Beatle's A Day in the Life
due to drug references.
http://timelines.ws May 2008
07 Nov 1967
Broadcasting
US
Congress creates Corporation for
Public Broadcasting.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
August 2006
1968
Broadcasting
Canada
Broadcasting Act creates Canadian
Radio-Television Commission (CRTC)
as regulatory and licensing authority.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2009
1969
Broadcasting
US
In Red Lion Broadcasting v. the FCC,
the Court rules that the Fairness
Doctrine and its personal attack rule are
constitutional basically because the
electromagnetic spectrum is a scarce
resource.
http://www.csulb.edu June 2009
1969
Broadcasting
US
PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, is
created.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
June 2007
09 Jun 1969
Broadcasting
US
On 9 June 1969 in a landmark decision,
the Supreme Court rules that the
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC)'s Fairness Doctrine, which
mandates that broadcasters provide
opportunities for differing viewpoints to
be aired concerning political and social
issues (see 1949 and 1959), is
constitutional. The case, Red Lion
Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, concerns
personal attacks alleged by journalist
Fred Cook, who says he was vilified on
the air by conservative Christian
broadcaster Reverend Billy James
Hargis. Cook had demanded free air
time under the Fairness Doctrine to
respond to the attacks. In an 8-0
decision, the Court rules that although
similar laws are unconstitutional when
applied to the press, radio stations must
hew to a different standard because of
the limited public airwaves.
http://www.historycommons.org/timeli
ne.jsp?
military_analysts_tmln_general_even
ts=military_analysts_tmln_fairness_d
octrine&timeline=military_analysts_t
mln December 2010
1970
Broadcasting
US
Radio/TV Cross-Ownership Restriction
enacted, prohibiting a broadcaster from
owning a radio station and a television
station in the same market. In 1875, the
Newspaper/Broadcast Cross-
Ownership Prohibition enacted. Bans
ownership of both a newspaper and a
television station in the same market.
http://www.pbs.org/now/
politics/mediatimeline.html October
2006
01 Oct 1970
Broadcasting
Canada
Canadian content regulations imposed
by Canadian Radio-Television
Commission came in force for CBC-
owned television stations, requiring a
minimum 60 per cent Canadian content.
Private stations had to reach the same
minimum by October 1972.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk May
2007
05 Oct 1970
Broadcasting
US
PBS became a network.
http://timelines.ws June 2006
1971
Broadcasting
Canada
Pierre Juneau, Chair of the Canadian
Radio-television Commission (CRTC),
introduced a system of Canadian
Content rules (Cancon) to quantify the
requirements of Section 3 of the
Broadcasting Act (1968). Checklists are
designed to determine the "Canadian"
nature of television and AM radio
programming (including music),
according to a point system. The point
system, still used today, is weighted
according to the number of Canadians
involved in the production of a song,
album, film or program. The CRTC also
establishes adherence to Cancon
quotas as a condition of license for the
new pay-per-view and specialty stations.
http://www.media-
awareness.ca/english August 2006
1972
Broadcasting
Canada
Revised Canadian content regulations
for private television stations; 60 per
cent minimum in overall programming.
http://www.ketupa.net June 2008
1972
Broadcasting
Canada
The CBC International Service became
Radio Canada International.
http://www.cbc.radio-
canada.ca/history January 2007
1976
Broadcasting
Australia
Australian Broadcasting Control Board
becomes the Australian Broadcasting
Tribunal.
http://www.ketupa.net October 2006
1976
Broadcasting
Canada
CRTC becomes Canadian Radio-
television & Telecommunications
Commission, regulating
telecommunications and broadcasting.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2009
1980
Broadcasting
US
FCC gives private companies the go-
ahead to build, launch communication
satellites.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
June 2007
25 Feb 1980
Broadcasting
US
The Los Angeles Times reports that
television and radio gospel broadcasts
spurred by a combination of
fundamentalist preaching and mass
media techniques are becoming a fast
growing industry. Preachers such as
Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson and Jim
Bakker are reported to earn revenues of
over $50 million a year for their
organizations.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
1984
Broadcasting
US
In The League of Women Voters of
California v. FCC, the [Supreme] Court
in two footnotes questions the scarcity
rationale for the Fairness Doctrine and
whether it is meeting its policy goal or
chilling speech. The Senate Commerce
Committee conducts three days of
hearings from 56 witnesses and
concludes that scarcity no longer exits
and that the Doctrine does have a
chilling effect.
http://ww.csulb.edu October 2006
1985
Broadcasting
US
The FCC concludes an inquiry into the
Fairness Doctrine by arguing that the
Doctrine is constitutionally suspect and
unjustified by the scarcity rationale. The
U.S. Court of Appeals strikes down the
"must carry" rules as a violation of cable
owners' First Amendment rights. The
Supreme Court refused to review the
case, so the lower ruling in Quincy
stood.
http://www.csulb.edu June 2008
1986
Broadcasting
Canada
Publication of reports by Federal Task
Force on Program Review (Nielsen) and
Broadcasting Policy (Caplan-
Sauvageau).
http://www.ketupa.net October 2006
1986
Broadcasting
US
The U.S. Court of Appeals in
Telecommunication Research and
Action Center v. FCC ruled that the
Fairness Doctrine was not codified and
that the FCC has primary jurisdiction
over its imposition. The Supreme Court
did not grant cert. In Preferred
Communication v. Los Angeles, the
Court ruled that if access was available,
cities could not prevent competition
between cable companies in the same
cities. The case was remanded for
discovery.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2007
1987
Broadcasting
US
"Fairness Doctrine" eliminated. At its
founding the FCC viewed the stations to
which it granted licenses as "public
trustee" - and required that they made
every reasonable attempt to cover
contrasting points of views. The
Commission also required that stations
perform public service in reporting on
crucial issues in their communities.
Soon after he became FCC Chairman
under President Reagan, Michael
Fowler stated his desire to do away with
the Fairness Doctrine. His position was
backed by a 1987 D.C. Circuit Court
decision, Meredith Corp. v. FCC, which
ruled that the doctrine was not
mandated by Congress and the FCC no
longer had to enforce it.
http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/medi
atimeline.html April 2007
1987
Broadcasting
US
FCC repeals most of the Fairness
Doctrine. Personal Attack Rule remains.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
August 2006
1987
Broadcasting
US
The FCC repeals the Fairness Doctrine
in the Meredith case, which [then went
under appeal]. Senator Hollings and
Congressman Dingell lead attempts to
codify the Doctrine.
http://www.csulb.edu November
2007
1988
Broadcasting
US
In 1988 Congress attempted to bring
back the Fairness Doctrine a provision
that mandates the broadcasting of
differing viewpoints on controversial
political and social issues. Though the
legislation passes both houses of
Congress by wide margins President
Reagan vetoes the legislation and
Congress is unable to muster enough
votes to override the veto. In 2008
authors Kathleen Hall Jamieson and
Joseph N. Cappella will write: "The end
of the Fairness Doctrine paved the way
for talk radio as we know it today.
Neither hosts nor stations currently have
an obligation to provide balance or to
open their programs to those of
competing views."
http://www.historycommons.org/timeli
ne.jsp?
military_analysts_tmln_general_even
ts=military_analysts_tmln_fairness_d
octrine&timeline=military_analysts_t
mln December 2010
1990
Broadcasting
UK
Broadcasting Act requires channels to
buy at least 256164170f their programming
from independent producers.
http://www.ketupa.net October 2006
1991
Broadcasting
Canada
The Broadcasting Act [in Canada], 1991
is passed in response to the
recommendations of the 1986 Caplan-
Sauvageau Report. Replacing the
Broadcasting Act of 1968, the new act:
emphasizes the importance of
bilingualism, multiculturalism and the
special place of Aboriginal people in
Canadian society; promotes
employment equity for women,
aboriginal people and visible minorities;
emphasizes the importance of
programming which is Canadian in both
content and character; and redefines the
CBC's role as creating a "Canadian
consciousness"
http://www.media-
awareness.ca/english August 2006
1992
Broadcasting
US
The Radio and Television News
Directors Association reports that news
directors [in the US] change jobs an
average every 2.7 years. The reason for
the revolving door is the enormous
pressure on them to excel not in the
journalistic arena but in the ratings.
Postman and Powers, How, P. 76
22 Nov 1995
Broadcasting
US
The FCC approves a plan by
Westinghouse Electric Corporation to
purchase the CBS Incorporated
television network for $5.4 billion in
cash. The deal will make Westinghouse
the leading broadcasting company in
the US, with 16 TV stations and 39 radio
stations.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 803
08 Feb 1996
Broadcasting
US
President Clinton signs the
Telecommunications Act of 1996. It is
generally regarded as the most
important legislation regulating media
ownership in over a decade. The radio
industry experiences unprecedented
consolidation after the 40-station
ownership cap is lifted. Clear Channel
Communications owns 1200 stations, in
all 50 states, reaching, according to
their Web site, more than 110 million
listeners every week. Viacom's Infinity
radio network holds more than 180
radio stations in 41 markets. Its holdings
are concentrated in the 50 largest radio
markets in the United States. In 1999
Infinity owned and operated six of the
nation's Top 10 radio stations.
http://www.pbs.org/now/
politics/mediatimeline.html June
2009
30 Jun 1997
Broadcasting
US
Public broadcasting's total revenues
pass $2 billion by end of fiscal year
1997. Document: CPB statistics.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-1990s.shtml December
2010
1999
Broadcasting
Australia
Australian Broadcasting Services
Amendment (Online Services) Act -
AKA BSA - reinforces online content
regulation.
http://www.caslon.com August 2007
1999
Broadcasting
US
Viacom Inc. announces deal to buy CBS
Corp. on 7 September for $81.5 billion
one of the largest media deals in U.S.
history.
http://www.commoncause.org August
2006
Dec 1999
Broadcasting
US
DirecTV commits to carry new PBS-You
adult education.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-1990s.shtml December
2010
2000
Broadcasting
US
We may take great heart from the
campaign for low-power FM radio
(LPFM) that has been waged now for
over a decade. In 2000, the FCC
authorized the licensing of several
hundred noncommercial community
radio stations across America. The
National Association of Broadcasters
went to Congress and shut down the
service, wielding false allegations of
interference and legitimate fears that
real local radio would siphon listeners
from the cookie-cutter formats of chain
radio networks. In a last-minute deal, the
lobbyists succeeded in curtailing LPFM,
leaving only a few hundred station
licenses available. Congress justified
the betrayal by ordering a study of the
claims of interference.
The Future of media, P. 35
Nov 2002
Broadcasting
Egypt
Egypt state television planned to air a
41-part series titled "Horseman Without
a Horse," about a journalist's efforts to
uncover the truth behind an alleged
Jewish plot to conquer the world.
http://timelines.ws August 2006
2003
Broadcasting
Canada
The House of Commons Standing
Committee on Canadian Heritage
releases its report, Our Cultural
Sovereignty: The Second Century of
Canadian Broadcasting, on the
Canadian broadcasting system.
http://www.media-awareness.ca
August 2006
2003
Broadcasting
Netherlands
In the Netherlands, the new Media Act
(Mediawet) came into force on 31
December.
http://ww.terramedia.co.uk August
2007
2003
Broadcasting
Russia
The Putin government acquires all
national TV stations.
http://www.scaruffi.com August 2006
2003
Broadcasting
Russia
TV-6 was replaced by TVS, which
soldiered on as Russia's only private
national network until the authorities
pulled the plug in 2003, officially for
financial reasons.
BBC July 2004
15 Sep 2003
Broadcasting
US
California judge approves new bylaws,
giving Pacifica Radio a new, highly
democratic governance system and
formally ending a long, bitter war for
control of the left-wing station chain.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-2000s.shtml December
2010
2005
Broadcasting
Kyrgyzstan
President Kurban Bakiev issued a
decree on 10 December to establish a
national public service broadcaster in
Kyrgyzstan, to be called ELTR. The
president got to appoint the chief
executive on the advice of a Supervisory
Board, also appointed by the president
to a five-year term on the
recommendations of leading academic
and other non-governmental institutions.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June
2007
12 Feb 2005
Broadcasting
US
On 12 February 2005 in an article
examining the history and impact of the
Fairness Doctrine progressive
communications law expert Steve
Rendell writes that since the doctrine's
repeal (see 1987 and 1988) there has
been far less coverage of controversial
public issues on the nation's airwaves.
The Media Access Project (MAP) says,
"Since the demise of the Fairness
Doctrine we have had much less
coverage of issues," with television
news and public affairs programming
decreasing both locally and nationally.
Twenty-five percent of broadcast
stations offer no local news or public
affairs programming at all. Rendell
writes: "The most extreme change has
been in the immense volume of
unanswered conservative opinion heard
on the airwaves, especially on talk radio.
http://www.historycommons.org/timeli
ne.jsp?
military_analysts_tmln_general_even
ts=military_analysts_tmln_fairness_d
octrine&timeline=military_analysts_t
mln December 2010
05 Apr 2005
Broadcasting
US
CPB appoints two journalists as
ombudsmen - one of a series of
decisions led by CPB Chair Kenneth
Tomlinson, who had privately embarked
on a campaign to bring more
conservative voices to PBS public
affairs programming.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-2000s.shtml December
2010
May 2005
Broadcasting
Albania
Parliament rejected a bill to authorize
digital broadcasting.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August
2006
15 Jul 2005
Broadcasting
Slovenia
The Slovenian parliament approves a
new Act on Radio television Slovenia.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk
November 2006
15 Aug 2005
Broadcasting
Canada
Canada's CBC locked out 5,300 of its 9,
000 employees following 15 months of
unsuccessful talks with the Canadian
Media Guild, a merger of 3 unions.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
15 Nov 2005
Broadcasting
US
CPB inspector general reports that CPB
Chairman Kenneth Tomlinson violated
the Public Broadcasting Act and CPB
guidelines, meddling in program
decisions and injecting politics into
hiring. He had resigned Nov. 3 after the
CPB Board heard the inspector
general's preliminary report.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-2000s.shtml December
2010
22 Dec 2005
Broadcasting
Lithuania
A new Act on the Lithuanian National
Radio and Television was approved by
the country's parliament. The
introduction of a license fee, which had
been considered, was dropped in favour
of funding from a combination of
advertising, a state budget allocation
and earnings from commercial
activities.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June
2007
29 Dec 2005
Broadcasting
Poland
In Poland the Broadcasting Act and
Other Laws were revised abolishing the
Office of Telecommunications and Post
Regulation and creating an Electronic
Communications Office.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June
2007
Feb 2006
Broadcasting
US
Future-oriented public radio executives
build support for shared back-end
Internet infrastructure for on-demand
media. Early exemplar is successful
NPR-led podcasting initiative.
http://www.current.org/history/timeline
/timeline-2000s.shtml December
2010
24 Mar 2006
Broadcasting
Switzerland
Switzerland's new Federal Radio and
Television Act is passed by the
parliament. Private broadcasters will
continue to receive a share of license
fee revenue. Technical aspects will in
future be regulated under the
Telecommunications Act
(Fernmeldegesetz).
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October
2007
18 Oct 2007
Broadcasting
UK
The head of the British Broadcasting
Corp. announced budget cuts that will
lead to a net loss of 1,800 jobs.
http://timelines.ws October 2007
29 Oct 2009
Broadcasting
Hungary
In Hungary Laszlo Majtenyi, the
chairman of Hungary's national body in
charge of awarding frequencies (ORTT),
announced his resignation after ORTT
took away 2 nationwide licenses from
foreign-owned stations and gave them
to 2 local firms, one with links to Fidesz,
the right-wing opposition party.
http://timelines.ws November 2009
Broadcasting Timeline
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