Start Date
Around the beginning of the thirteenth century
pictures began to be drawn on temple walls
depicting images of the afterlife and of animals.
These pictures were crude and deliberately
exaggerated representations, and bear a
remarkable similarity to modern manga. This
phenomenon continued over hundreds of years,
branching out to include numerous other subjects,
although the style remained the same.
rqyz.htm November 2010
Around the start of the 1600s these pictures were
made attractions in themselves for the first time
they were not drawn on temple walls but on wood
blocks. These were known as Edo, and the
subject was less religious, often graphically erotic,
although they branched out once again to include
various other subjects, particularly buildings and
satire. At around this time the word manga was
first used to describe the artistic style. The
pictures were by now generally composed in
monochrome, with simple outlines and
rudimentary blocks of colour which forewent
shading. The subject took precedence over the
method of representing it.
rqyz.htm November 2010
In 1702 Shumboko Ono, an early celebrity manga
artist, made a book out of prints of these pictures
with captions, although it was a collection of
pictures rather than a progressive story. This
method developed over the next hundred years,
in books which combined stories with illustrations
for every paragraph, allowing the art to be just as
sequential as the narrative and the narrative to be
more frenetic and pacy. The tradition of Toba-e,
as these comics were called, grew over the next
century, until they were the main form of literature
for most of Japanese society.
rqyz.htm November 2010
In 1754, Benjamin Franklin created the first
editorial cartoon published in an American
newspaper. Franklin's cartoon was an illustration
of a snake with a severed head and had the
printed words "Join, or Die." The cartoon was
intended to goad the different colonies into
joining what was to become the United States.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
The French government prohibited political
caricature. July 2007
In 1842, the first major graphic novel was
published in the United States. THE
humorist Rodolphe Toffler, appeared in a weekly
humor magazine called Brother Jonathan. It
concerned the misadventures of a young man
and his "lady-louve", using captioned cartoons
arranged in tiered or strip like fashion
htm November 2010
This period was also marked by the emergence
of many humorous and satirical magazines. One
of the most important was Het Humoristisch
Album, started in 1856. Many illustrators, such as
Jan Linse (1843-1906) and J. Holswilder (1850-
1890) contributed to this magazine. In 1866, it
published a Dutch version of the famous story of
'Monsieur Cryptogame', originally by Rudolf
Töpffer (without crediting him). In translation, this
was 'Meneer Spillebeen' or 'Meneer Prikkebeen'.
November 2010
In 1859, German poet and artist, Wilhelm Bush
published caricatures in the newspaper
Fliegende Blätter. In 1865, he published a
famous comic called "Max und Moritz".
/a/comics.htm November 2010
The first modern comic strip was Rudolph Dirk's
"Katzenjammer Kids", which appeared on
December 12, 1897 in the Journal American.
Previously, cartoon panels had no in-panel
dialogue, but in the Katzenjammer Kids dialogue
was directly applied within a "word balloon"
indicating the speaker. Also, until then no strip
had ever consisted of more than the one panel
format of the editorial or political cartoon. The
Katzenjammers combined both the aspect of
internal dialogue and panelized continuity, and in
the process designed and solidified the form of
the modern visual narrative strip.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
Around 1900, the terms "comics" and "comic
strip" came into common use in the United
States. Where did the word come from? The
strips of pictures being printed in magazines and
newspapers at that time were all funny or comic.
At first newspaper comic strips were called "the
funnies" and later the term comics became more
popular. Early American comic books were often
collections of reprints of newspaper comic strips.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
By the early 1900's there were over 150 strips in
syndication, in addition to many strips that never
saw publication in more than a local paper.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
Comics were introduced into Italy a few years
after their appearance in the United States: from
1908 onwards the weekly paper Corriere dei
Piccoli (Children's Courier) published the Sunday
pages of Mimmo (Buster Brown), Fortunello
(Happy Hooligan), Cirillino (The Newlyweds), Bibi
e Bibo (The Katzenjammer Kids), and Bubbi
(Little Nemo).
November 2010
In the 1920s the painter Josef Lada /1887-1957/,
who is well-known even abroad thanks to his
illustrations of the novel Dobry vojak Svejk /The
Good Soldier Schweik/ by Jaroslav Hasek,
became a pioneer of picture stories.
h.htm November 2010
Cartoon industry started in Malaysia almost
simultaneously with Indonesia during the late
1920s in conjunction with the development of
newspapers. In that context not only did
cartoonists illustrate culture, but they also
recorded, criticized or commented upon current
events, known as editorial cartoons. From there,
the industry evolved to different medium such as
magazine or electronic media to become not only
as editorial cartoons but also comic, strip and
animated cartoons.
November 2010
After the First World War, Holland experienced a
sense of optimism. Many newspapers started
publishing comics, initially meant for children,
such as 'Jopie Slim en Dikkie Bigmans', which
newspaper De Telegraaf had taken over from the
British Evening Post. It was such a success, that
soon dutch comic artists were asked to make
comics for other papers.
November 2010
In 1923, the children's comic 'Tripje en
Liezebertha' by Henk Backer appeared in
newspapers, and soon gained tremendous
popularity. All kinds of merchandise were
developed based on the comic.
November 2010
Shanghai is the cradle of Chinese comics. In
1925, Shanghai International Publishing House
published "Three Kingdoms", "Pilgrimage to the
West" and "Biography of Yue Fei", which were
the first four works that were named Chinese
comics. During the period of the war of
resistance, against Japan, Chinese comics in
Shanghai made rapid progress. There were
about two hundred people engaged in Chinese
comics. Four genres---Shen Manyun, Zhao
Hongben, Qian Xiao'ai and Chen Guangyi, the so
called "the Four Dans" in the Chinese comics
field emerged. On drawing technique, Zhao and
Qian were comparatively realistic, while Chen
was magniloquent. During the period from the
1930s to the 1940s, Chinese comics began to
develop rapidly.
.html March 2011
In 1930 a Belgian artist named Herge created an
adventure story of a boy and his dog, Tintin. The
first graphic album, TINTIN IN THE LAND OF
THE SOVIETS was a major success and
eventually Herge produced 24 Tintin albums, up
until his passing in the late 1980s.
htm November 2010
During the early phase of Pre-independence
Period (1930s – 1957), two major newspapers
written in Jawi; ‘Warta Jenaka’ & ‘Utusan
Zaman’ played vital role on introducing regular
and freelance community of cartoonists.
board_id=online_col&gul_no=407 November
By the beginning of the 1930s, several American
comics had reached the Netherlands and were
printed in various newspapers and magazines.
Comics like 'Popeye' and 'Mickey Mouse' were
not only translated, but also imitated by Dutch
artists who used them in their own strips, or even
for advertising a great number of goods, from
biscuits to shoes.
November 2010
At first Australian comics copied British comic
papers until the first comic book The Kookaburra
appeared in 1931.
November 2010
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, two Ohio teens
[Note: Joe Shuster was born in Toronto but the
family moved to Ohio] created the Superman
concept. They attempted to sell the concept
beginning in 1933 to a variety of publishers but
were rejected for 6 years. The concept was finally
accepted by Max Gaines, who was the publisher
of All American Comics Company, a part of DC
Comics. Max looked at the pages Shuster had
drawn from Siegel's script and said that even
though he could not use them, he felt that Sheldon
Mayer over at DC might as he was about to
launch a new comic title and he needed a cover
feature. Mayer looked at the pages and
immediately gave the two teens a check (for
$130, all rights included in sale!), had Joe draw a
cover and Action Comics #1 was published. It
appeared on the newsstands in May 1938. It was
an immediate success.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
In 1939 30 different series of comic books were
being published. This figure grew to 650 by 1954
(the year a strict self-censorship code was
enforced) and included such comic characters as
Airboy, Captain America, Captain Marvel, The
Phantom, Dick Tracy, Popeye, Flash Gordon,
Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse and Tarzan. There
was even a series of classical literature tales told
in the comic book format, such as Huckleberry
Finn, Robin Hood, Ivanhoe and King Arthur and
the Knights of the Roundtable.
International-Classics November 2010
Aug 1939
Marvel Comics #1 is published under Martin
Goodman's Timely Comics umbrella. Other logos
would be used including Atlas in the 1950s.
arveltimeline.html January 2011
Many comic magazines appeared in Bulgaria
during the first half of the 1940s. Iliustrovano
Chetivo ("Illustrated Book") appeared every
Wednesday. Contributors were Zmei Gorianin,
Atanas Dushkov, Ivan Dafinkov, V. Kovalevski,
and L. Zidarov. Kartinen Sviat ("Pictoral World")
appeared on Wednesdays and was the first
magazine to publish Bulgarian material, among
others by Zvezdelin Conev, and G. Georgiev
November 2010
06 Jun 1940
On 6th of June 1940 the first issue of Chuden
Sviat ("Wonderland") was published in Sofia, an
all-comics color newspaper edited by Nikola
Kotov, who was greatly influenced by Walt Disney
comics. The contributors were some of the best
Bulgarian writers of children's literature at that
time: Orlin Vasilev, St. C. Daskalov, Angel
Karaliichev, Georgi Raichev and others. Artists
were Nikola Kotov, Iurdan Stubel and Dochko
November 2010
1 of 4 magazines sent to US troops was a comic
.htm January 2011
Comic book publishers are selling 25,000,000
copies a month. July 2007
Because of its contribution to winning the Second
World War, Australia incurred a huge national
debt; local publishers found they had a captive
market as import restrictions were enforced, at
the same time the modern American style comic
book (mostly sans color) was adopted. In its
Golden Age, Australian talent produced exciting
creations such as Captain Atom, The Panther,
The Scorpion, The Raven, The Mask and many
November 2010
Bill 10 passed - anti-crime-comic law in Canada.
.htm January 2011
In 1949 Topolino cancelled all the non-Disney
strips and assumed the current pocket format
(the same format as the recent Disney
Adventures published in the U.S.). Its success
exceeded every expectation; after almost fifty
years, Topolino is still the best-selling Disney
magazine in the world.
November 2010
In the 1950s following television's entry into the
popular culture, some comic books began
featuring TV action/adventure themes such as
Have Gun Will Travel, Gunsmoke, lawman and 77
Sunset Strip.
International-Classics November 2010
In 1952, Walt Disney's Donald Duck, already
known through animations, introduced the first
Dutch Donald Duck weekly magazine. The first
issue was distributed for free on 25 October
1952, and immediately became a great success.
Donald Duck Weekly celebrated its 50th birthday
in 2002.
November 2010
American publisher, William Gaines started Mad
magazine in 1952, a popular and satirical
monthly comic book.
/a/comics.htm November 2010
Frederic Wertham authored "Seduction of the
Innocent," which linked comic books to juvenile
delinquency. This led to the creation of the
Comics Code Authority. EC Comics withdrew
"Tales From the crypt" and many other titles.
[Note: This book led to a Congressional inquiry
and subsequently the Comics Code. - SM] January 2008
The American Senate commences an inquiry,
and brings to court Entertaining Comics, for
producing titles such as Tales from the Crypt and
Vault of Horror. The trial was incited by
publication of Dr Fredric Wertham's book, The
Seduction of the Innocents: The Influence of
Comic Books on Today's Youth.
February 2011
21 Apr 1954
In the Foley Square U.S. Courthouse in New York,
a congressional subcommittee begins a three-
day televised investigation of the causes of
juvenile delinquency. The comic-book industry is
vilified, leading to laws in several states
restricting comic sales, and industry self-
m November 2010
27 Oct 1954
Comic book code for 26 American publishers is
announced in Washington, barring portrayal of
excessively gruesome or vulgar scenes.
Merritt, The Fifties
Comic book code censors horror, hurts sales,
hits industry hard. August
in 1955 the State of New York passed a law
making it illegal to sell obscene objectionable
comics to minors or to carry such words as crime,
sex, horror or terror in the title of any comic book.
Other states followed with similar legislation. The
number of comic books in this country declined
significantly after that. It wasn't long before those
who had been concerned about sex and violence
in comic books shifted their efforts toward the
newer medium of television.
International-Classics November 2010
15 Feb 1955
LA Board of Supervisors bans comic books
depicting crime and violence.
Merritt, The FIfties
01 Mar 1955
The SF Chronicle reported that a University of
California survey found that Americans spend
more money on comic books than all the
country's elementary schools and high schools
spend on textbooks. October 2008
When Malaysia came into the Post-
independence era after 31st August 1957
(Independence Day), the social, economic and
political conditions of Malaya played a very
important role in shaping the form and content of
local cartoons. By this period, new publications of
newspapers were introduced which begin the era
of multi language freedom in media. There are
two types of cartoons, namely, strip and single-x-
frame. Most of the strip cartoons deal with social
issues related to attitude, modernization and
moral crisis. Meanwhile single-x-frames depicted
most local and international contemporary events
which only began to thrive in the 1980s. By this
era, Berita Harian (first published on 1st July
1957) claimed to feature the largest number of
cartoons among newspapers in Malaya at that
board_id=online_col&gul_no=407 November
Another major Belgian graphic novel series
include ASTERIX THE GAUL by Goscinny and
Uderzo (starting in 1961 with 37 albums to date
in 30 countries).
htm November 2010
A renaissance begins at perennial also-ran
comics publisher Marvel with the publication of
Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four #1the
first of a new wave of super-heroes that would
include Spider-Man, The Hulk, Iron Man, The X-
Men, and The Avengers. Marvel's market share
would grow, solidly becoming the #1 publisher by
the 1980s.
arveltimeline.html January 2011
It was Al Capp who discovered that until TV, at
least, any degree of Scragg mayhem or
Phogbound morality was accepted as funny. He
didn't think it was funny. He put in his strip just
exactly what he saw around him. But our trained
incapacity to relate one situation to another
enabled his sardonic realism to be mistaken for
humour. The more he showed the capacity of
people to involve themselves in hideous
difficulties, along with their entire inability to turn a
hand to help themselves, the more they giggled.
'Satire,' said Swift, 'is a glass in which we see
every countenance but our own.
McLuhan, Understanding Media, P. 169
In 1965 the first of several fanzines (Comics Club
104) was published and the first Comics
Convention, the Salone Internazionale dei
Comics was held in Bordighera (it was
transferred to Lucca the following year and is still
a biannual event).
November 2010
Late 1960s imported comics from Indonesia has
encourage a new transition of style with more
realistic drawing compared to cartoon feature. By
right, this realistic drawing mainly influenced by
western comics such as Spider-Man and
Superman, but with local content, the popularity
has appeared to attract the readers. When
cartoons comic mostly appeared in newspapers,
these realistic drawing comics were published as
graphic novels or magazines.
board_id=online_col&gul_no=407 November
The Code began to lose power in the 1970s. The
big event was when Stan Lee wrote a Spider-
Man story involving narcotics. Despite the fact
that it portrayed the drugs in an extremely
negative light, and that it was written on the
recommendation of the United States
Department of Health, Education and Welfare, he
was told that the Code would not allow it simply
because of the mere depiction of narcotics used,
as opposed to a earlier approved Dead Man
story where the superhero fought narcotics
smugglers where the goods in question were
merely the focus of wholesale handling. Lee,
realizing the utter stupidity of this ban, simply
defied them, leaving the Code seal off for the
issues that involved that story and publishing it
anyway, to considerable public appreciation. The
Comics Code was soon changed to allow
negative portrayals of drug abuse, but the
damage to its reputation had already been done.
omicsCode January 2011
As 1973 approached, western cartoons and
comics were terminated in line with the policy to
encourage the development of local themes and
cartoons. It also echoed the search for a national
identity as proposed in the National Cultural
Congress of 1971. Cartoonists had to abide by
rules and laws related to the Printing Presses
and Publication Act 1984, which among others,
prevents the discussion of social and political
issues deemed to be ‘sensitive’. These policies
determine what is politically and stylistically
acceptable in terms of criticism, form and content
of local cartoons.
board_id=online_col&gul_no=407 November
The most fruitful period for Bulgarian comics
started in the late 1970s and lasted throughout
the 1980s. During that time, Bulgarian readers
enjoyed two periodical, all-comic publications -
Duga ("Rainbow") and Chuden Sviat, and also
sporadic inserts in the newspaper Septemvriiche,
the tribune of the Bulgarian Communist Youth
Organization. One of the main authors in Duga
magazine was the most successful Bulgarian
comic's artist Rumen Petkov, creator of the
heroes 'Choko and Boko' and author of the first
Bulgarian full-length animated movie 'The
Treasure Planet'. Later Rumen Petkov built a
successful career in the West and became one of
the creators of such famous Cartoon Network
features like 'Johnny Bravo' and 'Dexter's
Laboratory'. Some of the other artists were
Evgeni Yordanov, Hristo Kardjilov and Petar
Stanimirov. Contributors to the new Chuden Sviat
were Ivan Stoilov, Boris Krumov and Dimitar
November 2010
In 1978, Marvel Comics produced the first
original mass-market trade paperback graphic
novel, The Silver Surfer, by Stan Lee and Jack
htm November 2010
In Japan Kenshi Hirokane created his Mr Shima,
a salary man manga (cartoon) character. By
2008 some 30 million Shima Kosaku books had
been sold. September 2010
Alison Bechdel’s “Dykes to Watch Out For”
comic strip first appears in the feminist
newspaper Womanews.
meline omplete-Updated.pdf
January 2011
In Japan in the late 1980s 20 percent of all
publications sold were comic books, called
mangas. This translated into approximately 70
million copies a month. The themes or plots of
these comic books range as widely as American
popular novels and are mostly aimed at adults.
Sex, violence and even nudity is not uncommon
in many of these foreign comic books.
International-Classics November 2010
The early 1990s became the age of manga and
anime influence, a new breed of cartoons
created from Japan. Chinese community in
Malaysia has long been influenced by these
genres with most of it pirated and translated into
Mandarin language. The habit went on to Malay
readers to the extent where Malaysia was
suggested as a media pirate's paradise. This
has not stopped some publishers in their piracy
as the rightful owners of the respective media
don't take legal action over their materials.
board_id=online_col&gul_no=407 November
Nobuhiro Watsuki first published “Meiji
Swordsman Romantic Story” in the boy's
magazine Weekly Shonen Jump Special. He re-
wrote it in 1994 and expanded the saga of the
Meiji Restoration of 1868 as a serial that ran thru
1999. In 2004 it became the top-selling graphic
novel in the US. October 2006
27 Dec 1996
Burdened by a large debt following many
expensive acquisitions in trading-card and other
tangentially related fields -- and shaken by the mid-
1990s decline in comics publishing fortunes --
Marvel Entertainment files for Chapter 11
bankruptcy protection.
arveltimeline.html January 2011
In 2000 German publisher Dino Verlag GmbH
began publishing Star Wars graphic novels in the
German language with their translation of
Episode I: The Phantom Menace (Episode I: Die
Dunkle Bedrohung). Dino Verlag's publishing run
featured direct translations of graphic novels of
the day such as Darth MaulChewbacca and the
nine-volume Clone Wars series. By 2006, 35
graphic novels had been translated and
published by Dino Verlag. In 2007 Panini Manga
and Comic took over publication and continued
Dino Verlag's schedule featuring translations of
Knights of the Old Republic and Legacy graphic
novels. Since 2007, Panini has published their
Essentials series that translates older material
such as the best selling Dark Empire series.
10 Jul 2001
It was reported that Yoshinori Kobayashi (47),
cartoon book creator, promoted a philosophy of
Gomanism (politically provocative) in his best
selling works. This was seen as part of a rising
sense of nationalism. January 2007
May 2002
The first Spider-Man feature film is released.
Increased attention to comics benefits Marvel
and a comics industry on the rebound thanks to a
business model that also includes bound
collected editions of comics, allowing Marvel and
other publishers to capitalize on their long
publishing histories through bookstore sales.
arveltimeline.html January 2011
South Korea
Before 2003, only a handful of Korean comics
were exported, mainly to Southeast Asia", said
Park Si-hyung, an official of the Korea Culture
and Content Agency. "The decisive moment was
in 2003 when Angouleme made Korea the guest
of honor at the festival. After that level of
exposure, exports grew” According to the KCCA,
$1.9 million worth of cartoons was exported in
2004, reaching $4 million in 2007. Between 2004
and 2007, the industry reported 27.8 percent
average annual growth.
November 2010
In 2005 Dr. Eckart Sackmann founded the
Society for Research into Comics along with
Prof. Dietrich Grünwald and other comic fans.
m November 2010
By country, from 2005 to 2007, European
countries imported the most comics from Korea,
accounting for 38.3 percent, while North America
bought 21.5 percent, Japan 16 percent and
Southeast Asian nations 12.5 percent. In
response, the central government recently said it
will inject 142.5 billion won ($96.9 million) into the
industry over the next five years. By doing so, the
government expects to achieve 7 trillion won in
sales, $2 billion in exports, and create 10,000
new job opportunities.
November 2010
The global sale of Japanese animation and
character goods, an astonishing 9 trillion yen (US
$80 billion) is ten times what is was a decade
ago. Much of that growth has occurred in North
America and western Europe.
Jenkins, Convergence, P. 156
Berlin -- School authorities in Berlin are
introducing Hitler comics as textbook
supplements in the wake of studies showing that
a whole generation of post-unification German
children knows shockingly little about their
nation's history. The comic books trace the rise
of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany's descent into
barbarism through the eyes of a Jewish family. In
full-colour panels, the family members use the
Internet to trace their lost relatives, victims of the
Holocaust. Pictorial flashbacks graphically show
Hitler and his henchmen as well as the horrors of
his war and the gas chambers. "Die Suche" (The
Search), as the comic book is entitled, is the first
attempt to use a graphic novel as an aid in
teaching history in Germany. The comics are
being tested in public schools in Berlin and in
North Rhine-Westphalia for the spring 2008
semester. Pupils in grades seven through 10 will
be given the graphic novel as teaching aids, and
it was unveiled on the 75th anniversary of Hitler
becoming chancellor on Jan. 31, 1933.
the-Nazis-_11301.html November 2010
10-cent comic book introducing Superman sells
for $1,000,000. July 2008
Comics Timeline
Created with Timeline Maker Professional. Produced on 25 Feb 2012.