Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
0300 BCE
Babylonia
The counting board much like the later abacus is
believed to be first used by the Babylonians
circa.
http://www.computerhope.com/history/bc.htm
November 2010
1492
Italy
Leonardo da Vinci makes drawing of 13-digit
cog-wheeled adder.
http://www.computerhope.com/history/bc.htm
November 2010
1617
England
John Napier introduced a system called
"Napier's Bones," made from horn, bone or ivory
the device allowed the capability of multiplying by
adding numbers and dividing by subtracting.
http://www.computerhope.com/history/bc.htm
November 2010
1622
England
William Oughtred invents the slide rule. This first
one was circular.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1623
Germany
Wilhelm Schickard designs the first known
mechanical calculator, the Calculating Clock to
multiply large numbers.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1642
France
Blaise Pascal invents an adding machine which
he calls the Pascaline. It could perform addition
and subtraction but it was too expensive to be
practical and only Pascal could keep it working.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1666
England
Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator
that will add and subtract.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1674
Germany
Gottfried Leibniz the man to blame for the
invention of calculus, uses a stepped cylindrical
gear to build his Stepped Reckoner which will
both add and multiply.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1679
Germany
Leibniz introduces binary mathematics
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1803
France
1803-04 Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an
automated loom which uses punched cards to
reproduce complex patterns.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1820
France
The first mass-produced calculating machine,
Thomas de Colmar's Arithmometer, is marketed
and continues in use for many years.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1840
UK
Lord Byron's daughter Ada, Countess of
Lovelace suggests to Babbage that he use the
binary system. She writes programs for his
analytical engine, becoming the world's first
programmer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1853
Sweden
Scheutz invents the first printing calculator
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1882
US
William S. Burroughs quits his job as a bank
clerk and sets out to invent a reliable adding
machine.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
08 Jan 1889
US
Dr. Herman Hollerith (1860-1929), statistician for
the US Census Bureau, received the first US
patent for a tabulating machine. It resembled
Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, but used
electromagnetic relays instead of metal gears.
http://timelines.ws August 2006
1890
US
Hermann Hollerith's tabulator chosen for the
national census.
http://www.scaruffi.com August 2006
1892
US
Burroughs produces the first adding machine
with a printer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1899
US
Magnetic recording is invented.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1901
US
Hollerith starts his own company, the Tabulating
Machine Company, to market his data
processing machines
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1919
US
Two American physicists, Eccles and Jordan,
invent the flip-flop circuit which will be necessary
for high-speed electronic calculating.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1928
US
IBM adopts the 80 column punched card - used
for the next 50 years
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1928
US
Motorola incorporates as the Golvin
Manufacturing Corporation.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1936
Germany
Konrad Zuse applies for a patent on his
mechanical memory.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1936
UK
Alan Turing publishes On Computable Numbers
which lays a theoretical foundation for computer
principles.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1937
US
George Stibitz began his own work that was to
lead to a series of Bell Telephone Laboratory
Relay computers during World War II in 1937 by
his construction of a binary adder from parts
borrowed from the scrap heap at the Laboratory.
By January 1940 he had completed the "Bell
Labs Complex Computer" capable of performing
complex arithmetic calculations necessary for
circuit design and the following September
demonstrated the machine at the Fall meeting of
the American Mathematical Society at Dartmouth
College, coincidently also demonstrating the first
remote access to a computer through the use of
telephone lines.
http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/50th/January.html
November 2010
1938
Germany
Konrad Zuse completes his Z1 calculating
machine.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1938
US
William Hewlett and David Packard start Hewlett-
Packard in a garage in Palo Alto, CA.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1939
US
John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry of Iowa State
College complete the prototype of the first digital
computer. It can store data and perform addition
and subtractions using binary code. The next
generation of the machine will be abandoned
before it is completed due to the onset of World
War II.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html March 2010
1940
US
Bell Labs' George Stibitz and Samuel Williams
complete the Complex Number Computer, later
known as the Bell Labs Model 1. Stibitz later
demonstrates the Model 1 at Dartmouth College
with a terminal in New Hampshire and the Model
1 in New York.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1941
Germany
Zuse completes his Z3, the first program-
controlled electromechanical digital computer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1941
UK
In Britain, Alan Turing, M.H.A. Newman and
Tommy Flowers complete work on the Colossus,
the first all-electronic calculating machine. It is
used during WWII to break German codes
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1944
US
The first tests of ENIAC. The US government
extends funding to cover research on the EDVAC
(Electronic Discrete Variable Computer), a
stored program computer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1944
US
Thomas J. Watson, Sr. had been responsible for
assisting Howard Aiken in building the Harvard
Mark I calculator in 1944, a machine known within
IBM as the Automatic Sequence Controlled
Calculator (ASCC), but was rebuffed at the
dedication, Aiken and Harvard appearing to
claim all the credit for themselves. Though Aiken
apologized later, Watson was by no means
satisfied, and the emergence and success of
ENIAC did not add to his complacency. While not
intending to enter the computer business fully in
the same as Eckert and Mauchly intended with
their own company, he ordered the construction
of the updated IBM version of the ASCC, a
machine to be known as the SSEC (Selective
Sequence Electronic Calculator). SSEC was
dedicated on January 24, 1948. Watson was
dissatisfied with the publicity photographs of the
SSEC since the machine room at the Madison
Avenue headquarters contained two large
columns that obscured the machine; he had the
columns removed in the publicity pictures!
http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/50th/January.html
November 2010
1946
US
Eckert and Mauchly leave Moore school and start
the Electronic Control Company.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1948
US
Shockley, Bardeen and Bratain patent the
transistor.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1950
International
Other computers of 1950: UNIVAC 1101,
ADVIAC, IBM 607, SEAC (National Bureau of
Standards).
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1950
US
The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation is
sold to Remington-Rand.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1951
International
Other Computers of 1951: Fairchild Computer,
General Electric 100 ERMA, NBS SWAC
(Sealed With A Kiss?), Burroughs Lab
Calculator.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1951
UK
A British catering firm, Lyons & Company,
develops the first business computer, the Lyons
Electronic Office (LEO) , based on research
which they funded at Cambridge University.
David Caminer becomes the world's first
corporate systems analyst.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1951
US
The Eckert and Mauchly Computer Co. of
Philadelphia sells the first commercial computer,
the UNIVAC 1 to the US Census Bureau. The
memory called up data by transmitting sonic
pulses through tubes of mercury. An addition 45
UNIVAC 1 machines would eventually be sold.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html March 2009
1952
US
A complaint is filed against IBM, alleging
monopolistic practices in its computer business,
in violation of the Sherman Act.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1952
US
Other Computers of 1952: ORDVAC, EDVAC,
ILLIAC (Univ. of Illinois), and of course, someone
had to come up with the MANIAC, Harvard Mark
IV, Elcom 100, IAS, National 102, IBM 701.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1952
US
The IAN computer begins operation at the
Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton
University.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1952
US
US government sues IBM for monopolizing
punched-card machine industry.
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
1953
US
The IBM 650, aka the Magnetic Drum Calculator,
is introduced. It is the first mass-produced
computer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1956
US
IBM builds the first hard drive. It contains fifty 24
inch disks, has a capacity of 5 MB and costs
over US$1,000,000.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1956
US
IBM settles punch card dispute through DOJ
consent decree.
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
1957
Japan
1957 The Musasino-1 computer is developed by
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Company. It is
based on the principles of parametric excitation
developed by Eiji Goto in 1954. A command in
Basic programming will later be named after him.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1958
It is a world in which the creative imagination of
the artist is now needed by the men who handle
the computers.
McLuhan in Essential McLuhan, P. 295
(1958)
1959
International
This year marks the beginning of the second
generation of computers - those which use
transistors rather than tubes
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1959
US
General Electric introduces the GE ERMA, the
first machine to process checks encoded with
magnetic ink characters
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1960
International
Remington Rand introduces the Livermore
Advanced Research Computer (LARC) for use in
scientific research. It uses 60,000 transistors.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1960
US
DEC introduces the PDP-8, the first mass
produced minicomputer at the unheard-of low
price of $20,000.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1961
International
There are an estimated 9,300 computers world-
wide.
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1900mid.ht
ml#1960s February 2011
1961
US
Charles Bachman at General Electric develops
the first database management system, IDS.
http://www.scaruffi.com August 2006
1961
US
Fairchild releases the first commercially
produced integrated circuit.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1963
International
Digital Equipment sells its first minicomputer to
Atomic Energy of Canada.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1964
US
Gordon Moore suggests that integrated circuits
would double in complexity every year. This later
becomes known as Moore's Law.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1964
US
IBM rolls out the OS/360, the first mass-produced
computer operating system. Using the OS/360,
all of the computers in the IBM 360 family could
run any software program. Already IBM is a giant
in the computer industry, controlling 701f the
market worldwide.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html January 2009
1965
US
Digital Equipment introduces the PDP-8, the
world's first computer to use integrated circuit
technology. Because of its relatively small size
and its low $18,000 price tag, Digital sells
several hundred units.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html March 2009
1966
US
Steven Gray founds the Amateur Computer
Society, and begins publishing the ACS
Newsletter. This is considered by some to be the
birth-date of personal computing.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1966
US
There are 2,623 computers in the USA (1,967
work for the Defense Department).
http://www.scaruffi.com May 2008
1968
Circuitry means that every situation must fold
back into itself much in the pattern of cognition
and its playback, which is “recognition” in the
action of human perceiving and knowing. The
new technology mimes the prime procedure of
human learning and knowing.
McLuhan in Essential McLuhan, P. 295
(1968)
1969
US
US government lawsuit claims IBM guilty of
"illegal monopolization of computing industry."
http://www.ketupa.net September 2006
1972
Germany
SAP, a German business software company
based in Walldorf, Baden-Wurttemberg, was
founded by Hasso Plattner and 4 other dissidents
from IBM.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1973
US
A federal judge invalidates Eckert and Mauchly's
ENIAC patent and recognizes John V. Atanasoff
as the inventor of the modern electronic
computer.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1974
US
Jonathan A. Titus designs the Mark-8, "Your
Personal Minicomputer," according to the July,
1974 cover of Radio-Electronics.
Radio Electronics
1974
US
The first shipments of bar-coded products arrive
in American stores. Scanners at checkout
stations read the codes using laser technology.
The hand-punched keyboard cash register takes
one step closer to obsolescence.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html September 2006
1975
US
Ed Roberts, considered the father of the personal
computer, designs the Altair 8800. It is produced
by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems
(MITS). Introduced in Popular Electronics
magazine as a kit for $397, it becomes an
overnight success.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1975
US
MOS Technologies introduces the 6502
processor selling for around $25. Jobs and
Wozniak use it in the Apple II. It will later be used
in the Commodore PET, Commodore 64 and
early Atari computers.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1975
US
Old high school friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen
form a partnership known as Microsoft to write
computer software. They sell their first software to
Ed Roberts at MIT, which has produced the Altair
8800, the first microprocessor-based computer.
Gates soon drops out of Harvard; his empire has
begun.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html January 2009
1976
US
Cray Research, Inc. introduces its first
supercomputer, the Cray-1, which can perform
operations at a rate of 240,000,000 calculations
per second. Supercomputers designed by
Seymour Cray will continue to dominate the
market; the Cray 2, marketed in 1985, will be
capable of 1,200,000,000 calculations per
second.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html January 2009
01 Apr 1976
US
Steve Jobs and Mike Wozniak incorporate Apple
Computer and introduce the Apple I. Cost:
$666.66.
http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/CARLSON January 2007
1980
US
In the 1980s when Japan was dumping
suspiciously cheap microchips into the United
States, Washington rushed to the rescue with the
protectionist Semiconductor Trade Arrangement.
Fraser, Free, P. 107
1980
US
Number of computers in US exceeds one million.
http://www.caslon.com May 2009
1980
US
The Apple III is introduced with a 2-MHz Motorola
6502A processor and a price tag of $4,500 to $8,
000, depending on configuration. Meanwhile, IBM
begins assembling a team to design the PC. It
contacts Microsoft and Digital Research about
creating an operating system. Digital Research
declines.
http://Iml.jou.ufl.edu/CARLSON June 2007
1982
US
US government drops 1969 antitrust case
against IBM.
http://www.caslon.com May 2007
1986
US
Number of computers in US exceeds 30 million.
http://www.caslon.com May 2007
1988
Germany
Albert Fert of France and Peter Grunberg of
Germany independently discovered the
phenomenon of giant magneto resistance. It was
later adopted for use in computer hard-drives. In
2007 they won the Nobel Prize in Physics for
their discovery.
http://timelines.ws May 2007
1988
US
4.7 million Microcomputers, 120,000
minicomputers and 11,500 mainframes sold in
US.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1990
International
IBM's revenue reaches US$68.9bn, with 400,000
employees worldwide.
http://www.caslon.com May 2009
1990
US
After a prolonged sting investigation, Secret
Service agents swoop down on organizers and
members of BBS's in 14 US cities, including the
Legion of Doom. The arrests are aimed at
cracking down on credit-card theft and telephone
and wire fraud.
http://www.wavefrontcg.com/A_Brief_History
_of_Cybercrime.html February 2011
1991
Japan
Carbon nanotubules, formed from hexagonal
arrays of carbon atoms, were first discovered by
Sumio Iijima of NEC Fundamental Research
Labs in Tsukuba, Japan. In 2001 IBM scientists
assembled transistors using carbon nanotubules.
http://timelines.ws August 2010
1993
International
"Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set"
(UCS), aka ISO/IEC 10646 is published in 1993
by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO). It is the first officially
standardized coded character set with the
purpose to eventually include all characters used
in all the written languages in the world (and, in
addition, all mathematical and other symbols). It
forms the basis for the Unicode character set
specified by a consortium of major American
computer manufacturers
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1900late.htm
l#1998 August 2010
1993
US
Wired magazine is launched and graphic
designers are appalled. Hype achieves new
heights in cyberspace.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml February 2011
1994
International
135 million PCs worldwide.
http://www.caslon.com June 2007
1994
International
Most of the great new fortunes will be made by
start-up firms who develop a profitable idea and
then sell out to one of the existing giants.
(Witness Microsoft, which spent over $2 billion
between 1994 and 1997 to purchase or take a
stake in some fifty communication companies.)
McChesney, Rich, P. 140
1994
Japan
Five members of the Aum Shinri Kyo cult's
Ministry of Intelligence break into Mitsubishi
Heavy Industry's mainframe and steal Megabytes
of sensitive data.
http://www.wavefrontcg.com/A_Brief_History
_of_Cybercrime-2.html February 2011
Dec 1995
Europe
A survey by Inteco revealed computer sales in
Europe are booming but the number of
households with personal computers at the end
of 1995 was still far below figures for the US (37
percent). Spain topped the list at 21 percent
followed by Britain and Germany (19 percent),
France (15 percent), and Italy (14 percent).
Computer manufacturers have made the large
European market a fiercely contested
battleground; the American firms Compaq and
IBM currently lead the pack.
http://www.lehman.cuny.edu/vpadvance/artgal
lery/gallery/talkback/timeline/time1.html
August 2010
1997
US
43 percent of U.S. homes have computers.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2009
1998
Germany
In Germany Hartmut Pilch started his Free
Information Infrastructure (FFII) as a Web site. It
grew into an organization dedicated to the idea
that basic computer language should be as free
as human speech.
http://timelines.ws May 2007
1998
US
Justice Department sues Microsoft for
monopolistic practices.
http://timelines.ws May 2007
1999
US
Microsoft is worth 450 billion dollars, the most
valued company in the world, even if it is many
times smaller than General Motors, and Bill
Gates is the world's richest man at $85 billion
(1/109th of the US economy).
http://www.scaruffi.com August 2006
07 Jul 1999
Germany
The AMD Fab 30 plant created its 1st copper-
based chips at its new plant in Dresden. The
state of Saxony attracted Advanced Micro
Devices with a $500 million package to locate
there.
http://timelines.ws July 2007
2000
Burma
A Burmese citizen can be sentenced to a
maximum of 15 years for owning an unregistered
computer.
Harper's Index
2000
North America
According to the IDC (International Data
Corporation), total North American income from
software vendor revenue in 2001 was 92.1 billion
U.S. This total of North American revenue
represented an increase of 1.6 0.000000rom 2000.
IDC
2001
International
According to the IDC (International Data
Corporation), total worldwide software vendor
revenue in 2001 was $173.9 billion U.S.
IDC
2002
US
9 of 10 American school children have access to
computers at home or school.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2008
2003
International
152m personal computers sold across globe.
http://www.caslon.com July 2007
May 2003
Germany
Munich, Germany, ousted Microsoft from 14,000
government computers in favour of Linux.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
20 Nov 2003
Germany
Advanced Micro Devices said it would build a
$2.4 billion chip factory in Germany to produce
microprocessors on 300-mm silicon wafers.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
16 Mar 2004
Japan
Japan's Toshiba Corp said that Guinness World
Records had certified its stamp-sized hard disk
drives (HDDs) as the smallest in the world. The
0.85-inch HDDs, un-veiled in January, have
storage capacity of up to four gigabytes and will
be used in products such as cell phones and
digital camcorders.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
2005
US
Sales of notebook computers account for 53
percent of the computer market in the US.
http://www.scaruffi.com June 2009
06 Jun 2005
Switzerland
IBM and Ecole Polytechnique of Lausanne,
Switz., announced a partnership to begin building
a computer model of the human brain.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
09 Oct 2007
Europe
Two European scientists won the 2007 Nobel
Prize in physics for a discovery that lets
computers, iPods and other digital devices store
reams of data on ever-shrinking hard disks.
France's Albert Fert and German Peter
Gruenberg independently described giant
magneto resistance in 1988 then saw the
electronics industry apply it in disks with
incredible amounts of storage.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
22 Oct 2007
US
Microsoft Corp. dropped a nearly decade-long
legal battle with European regulators, agreeing to
key parts of an antitrust ruling that has already led
to hundreds of millions in fines.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
2008
International
The number of personal computers in the world
will reach one billion already by the end of 2008
and two billions - by 2015. Such information is
contained in the forecast published by the
Forrester Research marketing company.
http://www.science-portal.org/in/71 February
2011
18 Apr 2011
International
I4i sued Microsoft in 2007, and the lower courts
have ruled that the world's biggest software
maker willfully infringed on the Canadian
company's patent for an editing tool it co-opted
for Microsoft Word. The technology in question
gave Word 2003 and Word 2007 users an
improved way to edit XML, which is computer
code that tells the program how to interpret and
display a document's contents. Microsoft has
been ordered to pay i4i a record $290 million US
in damages, and an injunction prevents it from
selling versions of Word containing i4i's
technology.
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/201
1/04/18/tech-i4i-microsoft-supreme-
court.html April 2011
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