Start Date
The film process may first have been created by
Louis Le Prince, working in New York City, who
patented his process for "the successive
production... of objects in motion... by means of a
projector" in 1886. But while travelling to Paris to
demonstrate his process in 1892 he vanished.
http://www.fact- December
George Eastman uses Cellulose Nitrate as a
base for photographic roll film. Cellulose nitrate
was used for photographic and professional
35mm motion picture film until the 1950s,
eventually creating one of the most dramatic
problems in the preservation of media.
index.php August 2010
Thomas A. Edison and William Dickson perfect
their kinetoscope, a forerunner of the movie
projector. Viewers watch through a small
peephole as images pass between a lens and an
electric light bulb at a rate of 46 frames per
second. While the kinetoscope would lead
directly to the development of moving pictures
and the kingdom of Hollywood, Edison
considered the kinetoscope as no more than a
is/Timeline2.html September 2010
28 Oct 1892
Charles-Émile Reynaud, inventor of the
praxinoscope, an animation system using loops
of 12 pictures, creates the first animated film.
This took place at the Musée Grévin.
index.php August 2008
01 Nov 1895
Max and Emil Skladanowsky unveiled their
Bioskop at the Wintergarten in Berlin.
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 53
28 Dec 1895
Auguste and Louis Lumière at the Grand Café
projected a program of actualité films for a
paying audience
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 53-4
Georges Méliès directed 531 films between
1896 and 1913, ranging in length from one to
forty minutes. In subject matter, these films are
often similar to the magic theatre shows that
Méliès had been doing, containing "tricks" and
impossible events, such as objects disappearing
or changing size.
May 2012
The first film ever to be made in Italy was
Umberto and Margherita of Savoy Walking in a
Park, by Vittorio Calcina, of 1896. This and all
other early films were short films documenting
ml April 2011
The first presentation of film in Poland was made
in October of 1896 at Lvov. An Edison camera
and films were used.
History.asp December 2010
14 Jan 1896
The British pioneer Birt Acres projected some of
his film to the Royal Photographic Society in
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 53
May 1896
The cinema was introduced into Spain in May
1896 by Alexandre Promio, an agent of the
Lumières who had arrived the month before. The
programme he presented contained titles shown
in Paris on 28 December 1895 and was given in
the Hotel de Rusia, 34, Carrera de San Jerónimo,
Madrid. April
10 May 1896
The Lumiere Company started to show films
regularly from 10 May 1896 in the coffee shop of
the Hotel Royal in Budapest. The entrance fee
was 50 pence per screening. Within twelve
months, the cinematography emerged in all major
cities March
In 1897, the import of French cameras started,
and a Frenchman living in Argentina, Eugene Py,
became the first filmmaker and cameraman with
La bandera argentina (The Argentine Flag), a
short movie. March
Already in 1897 the first cameramen from the
Lumiere studios visited Morocco. They showed
"Le chevrier marocain". In thesame year the first
public showings were organized in the "Palais
Royal de Fès". One of the first hired cameramen
from the Lumiere studios Félix Mesguich toured
Casablanca showing the agression from the
French towards the moroccan people in 1907. April
The first shootings of Peru were filmed between
1897 and 1899 by anonymous camera workers.
This footage was presented in the Politeama
Theater in Lima and showed twenty views,
including the Cathedral of Lima and the road
between Oroya and Chanchamayo. This kind of
local newsreels, early documentaries, were shot
throughout the first two decades of the twentieth
century. April 2011
The introduction of "cinematograph" in Turkey
came in 1897 when Sigmund Weinberg, a
Romanian living in Istanbul, screened the first film
at his bar-café in Pera, the fashionable
entertainment district of the period.
ps/turkcinema.asp March 2011
An Italo-Brazilian Affonso Segreto began to
make films and from 1900 locally made films
began to dominate Brazilian screens.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
Lumière boasts a catalogue of more than one
thousand short films. October
New Zealand
In 1898, two years after the first movie had been
shown in New Zealand A H Whitehouse shot the
first film in the nation. He was one of those
pioneer men, carrying his show around the
country, through all weather, bringing moving
pictures to small New Zealand towns.
April 2011
The period from 1898 to 1943 was the golden
age of what was then called the travelling cinema.
Four celebrated showmen covered the length
and breadth of Switzerland, setting up a marquee
housing a projector and a few benches in the
heart of every small town and village. April
In 1898 Frenchman Felix Oliver arrived in
Montevideo. With his equipment he shot the first
Urugayan film, "a bicycle race in the velodrome
Arroyo Seco" consisted of only one take. April
From about 1900 the mansion colony of
Neubabelsberg arose east of Babelsberg Park
on the southern shore of the Griebnitzsee Lake.
After the Universum Film AG (UFA) in 1922 had
acquired a large backlot nearby, these villas built
by famous architects like Hermann Muthesius
and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became popular
residences of numerous film stars.
Babelsberg July 2011
In 1900 Henry Sylvester Williams convenes the
first Pan-African Conference French circus group
projecting the Lumiere brothers' L 'Arroseur
arrose in Dakar. These screenings are known as
the first in Senegal. April
Sears not only carried the 1901 'improved
version' of Edison's kinetoscope as well as an
exhibition outfit similar to Hale's Tours but he also
intensified the push toward identification by
urging his customers to get a piece of his own
aura, to partake in his success in the American
Dream, by going into business as presenters of
Hale's Tours and short films on Edison's new
kinetoscope machine.
Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life, P.
Before 1903, the overwhelming majority of
American films - more than 80 percent,
according to one estimate based on copyright
data, were of a topical nature, including news,
travel, documentary, and sports subjects. This
early pattern might have indicated that the
movies would develop primarily into a visual
Starr, Creation of the Media
In 1904 the Salao Ideal, the second Portuguese
cinema, opened its doors. May
In 1905, Sahaf Bashi opened the first movie
theater in Cheragh Gaz Avenue in the national
capital. April 2011
As early as 1906, Pathé had drawn up plans to
build factories for printing positive film stock in
those countries where is was distributing the
highest volume of films. Note: Including the US.
Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life, P.
The first theatres was established in 1906 by
Davorin Rovsek in Ljubljana and the second one
called Edison, by anton Deghengi, also in
Ljubljana. Soon other theatres appeared in
Maribor, Ptuj, Kranj, Celje, Murska Sobota,
Trbovje and Perme. April
There were no more than twenty or so cinemas in
Switzerland in the period 1906-1910. April
11 Aug 1906
In France, Eugene Lauste received the first
patent for a talking film. November 2006
The earliest known film-making in Botswana and
the Kalahari was by the Austrian ethnographer
Rudolf Pöch (Poech) in 1907-09. He made four
films on San people in the Nossop (Kalahari-
Gemsbok) area of Botswana-Namibia-South
Africa, and recorded synchronous wax disks of
the !Komani or /Auni language-producing the first
successful ethnographic "talkie". May
Emil Cohl (from France) begins a long animation
Timeline.html January 2011
A few Russian and Armenian immigrants
individually tried to establish new movie theaters
in Tehran. Russi Khan was the most successful
figure among these new cinema owners. With the
connections that he held in the Royal court he
could expand his business despite religious
contentions. The presence of the Russian Army
in the north and Tehran was another support for
Russi Khan, since they shared the same
nationality and provided an additional market for
his enterprise. In 1909, with fall of the
Mohammad Ali Shah (heir of Mozaffar al-Din
Shah) and the success of the constitutionalists,
Russi Khan lost his support. Consequently, his
film theatre and photography studios were
destroyed by the public. Soon after, other cinema
theatres in Tehran closed down. April 2011
New Zealand
In 1907 the Government Tourist Department
employed J. McDonald to make some newsreels
on New Zealand subjects to send overseas.
March 2011
Indeed the period 1908-1912 has been called
the bela época the "golden age" of Brazilian
cinema where production reached as high as
100 short films per year.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
The history of cinema in Estonia goes back to
1908 when the visit of Swedish King Gustav IV to
Tallinn became the first newsreel ever produced.
ma.html March 2011
The first short film comprised solely of animated
images, Emile Cohl's Fantasmagorie, receives
its premiere in Paris.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
'Shakespeare is art, but it is not adapted
altogether for the five cent style of art. The
stabbing scene in the play is not predominant,
but in the picture show it is the feature.' - Chicago
police lieutenant, enforcing a censorship ban on
a Vitagraph production of Macbeth, 1908. November 2006
The Motion Picture Patents Company, known as
The Trust, was formed in the US on 9 September
by leading film companies to protect their patents
and copyrights by pooling patents on equipment,
mostly held by Edison and Biograph. Among the
members are Biograph, Edison, Vitagraph,
Essenay, Kalem, Kleine, Lubin, Méliès, Pathé
and Selig. Among other things, the Trust
establishes a standard price of half a cent per
foot for film prints that are rented on a weekly
basis rather than sold. The effect is to strengthen
the American industry, leading to a reduction in
imports. The European producers respond by
making films based on literary or historical
subjects that will be less directly competitive with
the current vogue styles of American-made films. December 2007
20 May 1908
A police ruling in Berlin on 20 May led to the
issuing of censor's certificates for films. November 2007
24 Dec 1908
In New York the day before Christmas 1908,
Mayor George B. McClellan Junior closed the
city's more than 600 nickelodeons requiring them
to reapply for licenses under new rules that would
bar them from opening on Sundays and from
showing movies that tended to 'degrade or to
injure the morals of the community.'
Starr, Creation of the Media, P. 306
Hong Kong
During its early history, Hong Kong's cinema
played second fiddle to that of the mainland,
particularly the city of Shanghai, which was then
the movie capital of the Chinese-speaking world.
Very little of this work is extant: one count finds
only four films remaining out of over 500 produced
in Hong Kong before World War II (Fonoroff,
1997). Detailed accounts of this period,
especially those by non-Chinese speakers,
therefore have inherent limitations and
ie#History July 2010
There were about 9,000 movie theaters in the
United States. June 2009
In 1910 Correia directed and shot his film
Grisette with Julia Mendes as the leading
actress. This film was projected with recorded
sound played from a record disk. This event
formed the first experiment with sound film in
Portugal. May
From 1911-1919, the number of feature-length
films released each year increased from 2 to 646,
and grand movie palaces sprouted up in major
metropolitan areas
January 2011
Pennsylvania became the first state to pass a
film censorship law. July 2009
By 1912, one cinema existed per 10,000
Hungarians. In between then and World War I,
several companies were formed and over 50
films were produced.
lm+in+Hungary March 2011
In 1912, the first Romanian feature film
Independenta României/Romania's
Independence was shown. It is a story about the
Romanian armies participating in the 1877-1878
Russian-Romanian-Turkish War. May
Around 1912, Zukor established an independent
film studio that he called the Famous Players
Film Company, with distribution arranged with a
new organization called Paramount. It included a
number of famous performing personages, such
as Sarah Bernhardt.
January 2011
Until around 1912, producers and exhibitors
insisted that audiences couldn't sit through films
longer than a single reel (about 15 minutes). But
with the arrival of longer films from Europe
(notably made by Adolph Zukor), one-reel films
soon gave way to two-reel and four-reel features.
In 1912, Zukor proved that there was an audience
for a four-reel, 'feature-length' French film Queen
Elizabeth (1912), starring famous French stage
actress Sarah Bernhardt. (Her appearance in the
film also increased respect for motion picture
January 2011
The first attempt to make national cinema in an
organized way took place in 1913 with the
creation of SICLA (Latin American
Cinematographic Industrial Society). As in other
countries, the production of movies in Colombia
came about as an alternative in order to
overcome competition. April
After the start of World War I the Austrian film
industry grew in strength, as many foreign
companies, such as those of France's powerful
film industry, were no longer allowed to produce
or distribute films in Austria. In the period 1914 to
1918, nearly 200 movies were produced in
Austria - twice as many as in all the years before.
Austria July 2006
The year 1914 saw the shooting of the first
feature film, political satire Bear Hunt in
Pärnumaa by Johannes Pääsuke. Although the
film is rather primitivist, Pääsuke is regarded as
the father of Estonian cinema.
ma.html March 2011
New Zealand
The first feature film however was Hinemoa in
1914. Based on a Maori legend of love and
determination, its cast included many locals from
the Rotorua area.
April 2011
Earl Hurd invents the process of cel animation
which would revolutionize and dominate the
industry for much of the 20th century.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
In 1915 the Pirone brothers of Belgium set up a
film production laboratory in Baku. They invited
film director Svetlov from St. Petersburg to work
for them and produce "The Woman," "An Hour
before His Death" and "An Old Story in a New
Manner." April
Films have been produced in Bulgaria since
1915 (Vassil Gendov's Balgaran e Galant (The
Bulgar is a Gentleman, a remake of his earlier
1910 version)). The film was lost during a WO II
bombing targeting Sofia. Gendov was by far the
most productive and well known director of the
silent period. April
Dominican Republic
In 1915 the Puerto Rican cameraman, Rafael
Colorado, shot the first moving pictures in the
Dominican Republic, Excursión de José de
Diego a Santo Domingo.
html April 2011
Mutual had offices in 45 cities, which in turn
supplied the films to over 7,000 theaters. They
also opened branch offices in London, Berlin,
Rome, and Paris. Roy Aitken oversaw the foreign
offices from the London headquarters. Mutual
was the first to challenge a state censorship in
Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of
October 2008
In Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial
Commission of Ohio, the Supreme Court ruled
that states may censor films, encouraging
scrutiny of movies during future decades. June 2006
In Mutual Film Corporation v. Ohio, the US
Supreme Court ruled that films are only items of
commerce and thus not subject to free-speech
protection. August 2006
At the end of the same year [1916] the Russian
officials forbid all filming activity in Finland, so
nothing much was made anymore before the
country's independence in 1917.
Finland October 2008
By 1916, there already existed some 2000 fixed
venues for movie performances and initially film
screenings had to supplemented or even
replaced by variety turns.
Germany October 2008
499 films were made in Russian, more than three
times the number of just three years earlier.
Russia October 2008
14 May 1916
On May 14 1916, Baku cinema goers were
stunned by the premiere of a movie entitled In the
Realm of Oil and Millions. The film was based on
a novel by Ibrahim Musabeyov and opened at the
Biography, a very fashionable theater those days.
In the story, a group of local men try to convince
residents that oil deposits worth millions literally
lay at their feet. To access it, one had only to
pierce the road with something sharp, such as a
walking stick. The hero of Realm, it turns out,
ends up making a fortune on a field two steps
away from the corner of his house. April
The first animation feature-length movie in the
world, El apóstol (The Apostle), was made in
1917. March
The first feature-length animated film Quirino
Cristiani's El apostol is released. All known
copies were destroyed in a fire, however.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
By 1917 there were 80 cinemas in Egypt.
March 2011
In 1917 a process of concentration and partial
nationalization of the German film industry began
with the founding of Universiumfilm
Aktiengesellschaft (UFA), which was partly a
reaction to the very effective use that the Allied
Powers had found for the new medium for the
purpose of propaganda. Under the aegis of the
military, so-called Vaterland films were produced,
which equalled the Allies' films in the matter of
propaganda and disparagement of the enemy.
Audiences however did not care to swallow the
patriotic medicine without the accompanying
sugar of the light-entertainment films which,
consequently, UFA also promoted. It was in this
way that the German film industry became the
largest in Europe.
Germany January 2008
In 1917, the main film import towards Mexico
came from Europe. The United States were still
modestly apparent on the screens, although
Hollywood already began to form as the future
Mecca of cinema. Next to this the stereotypical
Mexican Bandit, depicted in American movies
did not meet with much favour in Mexico. April
After the end of World War I, film production
continued to grow, because the then Austrian
currency, the Krone, was very weak. As a result
Austrian films were cheaper than those from
other countries. In the years 1919 to 1922
Austrian film production reached its all-time peak
with a yearly output of 100 to 140 films.
In the period immediately following World War I,
movies were a popular escape into fantasy for
many people, and the film industry boomed. The
boom was helped by the hyperinflation of the
early 1920s. This enabled film makers to borrow
money in Papiermark which would be vastly
devalued by the time it had to be repaid.
Germany August 2009
The fact of British colonial rule meant that film
censorship was exercised by the British
authorities. Censorship had been introduced by
the Cinematograph Act of 1918 which set up
regional boards of censors in Bombay, Calcutta,
Madras and Rangoon; a fifth board was
established in Lahore in 1927.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 330
American movies had been present on the
Romanian market in large numbers during the
interwar period. Major Hollywood studios like
Paramount, Metro-Goldwin and Universal had
representatives in the country. In the 1920s and
the first part of the 1930s, American movies
accounted for the largest part of the Romanian
market. The Bucharest of the 1930s had 36
cinema theatres and 10 summer gardens that
were showing movies. Other large cities such as
Brasov, Iasi, Cluj and Constanta had many
cinemas as well. May
Board of Censorship is established in Helsinki,
Finland, replacing film vetting by local police. January 2010
Finland gained autonomy from the subordination
of the Russian grand duke in 1917. Two years
later the former touring actor Erkki Karu (1867-
1935), along with some others founded a new
film company, Suomi-Filmi Ltd, which in 1920
became the leading film production company, at
the same time owning the largest cinema chain in
the country. April
Often cited as the 'granddaddy of all horror films'
The Cabinett of Doctor Caligari is an eerie
exploration of the mind of a madman, pitting an
evil doctor against a hero falsely incarcerated in
a lunatic asylum. Through a clever framing device
the audience is never quite clear on who is mad
and who is sane, and viewing the film's skewed
take on reality is a disturbing experience,
heightened by the jagged asymmetry of the mise
en scene. Although modern viewers might find
the pace slow, with long takes and little cutting
between scenes, The Cabinet... is stylish,
imaginative, and never less than haunting.
pageID=1920s December 2010
Unfortunately, stabilization came with a brutal
dictatorship. General Horthy ruled with an iron
fist. Censorship was extreme for films produced
locally. The oft-cited example is that of a
producer who couldn't show horses galloping
away in a cloud of dust. That scene supposedly
reflected badly on the quality of Hungarian
highways. Almost all films after the fall of the
Republic were imported. In between 1919 and
1929, a mere four or five films were produced in
Hungary. 1929 marked the slow return of locally-
produced films to Hungary. The Singing Fool in
1929 was a hit in Budapest. In 1931, the first
Hungarian talkie, The Blue Idol was released.
Most Hungarian films were silent even through
1935, as it was cheaper. Talkies were dubbed in
Hungarian and imported by major distributors.
lm+in+Hungary March 2011
In the early 1920s Paramount-owned Famous
Players extended its reach into Canada, where
the major theatre chain was family-owned Allen
Theatres. When the Allens refused to sell out to
Famous Players, the Hollywood major deprived
Allen Theatres of all movies by Paramount. The
Allens soon relented and sold out. With the
addition of the Allen movies houses, Famous
Players counted more than 200 cinemas in
Canada by 1930. The only serious competition to
Famous Players was in Toronto where another
Hollywood company, Loews, also operated
movie theatres.
Fraser, Free, P. 231
The decade of the twenties is the only one in the
history of Colombian cinema in which we can talk
of relatively stable and productive
cinematography. The film version of Maria, by
Jorge Isaacs, filmed in El Paraiso Hacienda
between 1912 and 1922, was the first screen
"classic". July
During the twenties 20 feature films were
produced annually in Czechoslovakia. The sound
picture era starting at the end of the twenties
made Czech actress Anny Ondráková (1902-
1987) famous. She played the leading part in
Alfred Hitchcock's first sound film and became an
international star.
April 2011
In the twenties, nearly fifty documentary and
fiction films were produced. Production of film
then almost totally vanished between the thirties
and the seventies. July
The First World War and the War of
Independence retarded the domestic film
industry's development; it wasn't until the 1920s
that it began to thrive. The first full-length feature
film was Konstantin Märska's 'Shadows of the
Past' (Mineviku varjud, 1924), which has
unfortunately not survived. April
UFA had been privatized in 1921 by a sale of the
state's holdings to the Deutsche Bank and had
become the mainstay of an industry that
produced up to 600 feature films a year in the
1920s. In addition to UFA, there were some 230
film companies in business in Berlin alone at this
http://www.answers. com/topic/cinema-of-
Germany February 2010
The level of film production increased
significantly during the 1920s, rising from 18
features in 1920 to 40 in 1921 and 80 in 1925.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 326
In Japan there is also evidence to suggest that
early exhibition practices were directed towards
more affluent patrons with ticket prices almost the
equivalent of $US1. However the number of
permanent cinemas by the 1920s and 1930s -
600 in 1920, 1,050 in 1925, 1,600 by 1935, is
suggestive of a broader social base for cinema
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 357
In the 1920s a group of Vietnamese intellectuals
formed the Huong Ky Film Company in Hanoi. It
produced documentaries on the funeral of
Emperor Kh?i ??nh and the enthronement of Bao
am May 2011
Germany proved slightly more successful in
resisting Hollywood's domination. In 1921, the
Weimar Republic imposed a quota limiting the
importation of foreign movies to 15 percent of all
films screened in Germany. The quota was not
respected, but domestic films still commanded
about 40 percent of screen time through the
Fraser, Free for All, P. 233
Nearly 100 bills to regulate the movies were
introduced in state legislatures in 1921; when
New York State enacted a movie censorship law
that year, it was a major blow to the industry
because of the pivotal importance of the New
York market.
Starr, The Creation of the Media, P. 317
In 1922, Buenos Aires had some 27,000,000 film
goers each year and 128 movie theatres, the
largest, the Grand Splendid seating 1350
hp March 2011
South Africa
Production declined after 1922 for, despite high
technical standards, there was very little interest
in British and US markets.
ory.asp May 2011
Average US weekly movie attendance is 40
million (1.56 per household). May 2007
Felix Salten (1869-1945) a Viennese Jew, wrote
his antifascist allegory "Bambi, A Life in the
Woods." It was translated into English by
Whittaker Chambers and published by Simon &
Schuster in 1928. In 1942 it was made into an
animated Disney film. August 2006
In 1923 the Azerbaijan Photo Film Institution
(APFI) was established by a special decree of
the Council of People's Commissars. The
Institution controlled all the movie houses and
distribution bureaus. Thus, a new epoch in the
history of Azerbaijani cinema began - a period
when Soviet ideology, not individual
entrepreneurship, dominated the film industry
Azerbaijan July 2008)
The Canadian Government Motion Picture
Bureau was formed. June 2006
Probably the most restrictive, socially, was the
Irish Free State, where the 1923 Censorship of
Film Act had 'put in the hands of state censors ill-
defined and subjective criteria for issuing
certificates for the public exhibition of films.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 200
New Zealand
The Government Photography Office, under the
control of the Department of Agriculture until
1923, made several films, such as Flax Growing
at Foxton and Milling Kauri Timber. It then
became a part of the Publicity Office, which was
later incorporated in the Tourist Department.
March 2011
Film-making in Belarus started in 1924 when the
State Administration on Matters of
Cinematography and Photography (Belgoskino)
was organized. April
In 1924, when Charlie Chaplin was shooting The
Gold Rush, the Hollywood majors established a
lobby presence in Canada through an
association called the Motion Picture Distributors
and Exhibitors of Canada. An offshoot of the US-
based Hollywood lobby, the association was run
by compliant Canadians with political
connections and establishment credentials in
Canada, a strategy that continues to this day.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 231 (1999)
By 1924 UFA was on the verge of bankruptcy. It
was rescued by a $4 million (US) loan from two
Hollywood studios: Paramount and MGM.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 233
The film "Kino-Eye" was the first genuine Soviet
documentary and showed people from all walks
of life who didn't know they were being filmed. June 2008
In the world's most populous country there were
only 120 permanent cinemas by 1925 and 275
by 1939; the majority of those were in the foreign
concessions of the treaty ports (Shanhai,
Nanking, Hong Kong).
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 357
The Misr Bank became involved in financing
Egyptian film-making.
March 2011
From France, a wide-screen film. June 2007
In France, despite a government-imposed tariff
on imported movies, the Hollywood studios were
taking in 82 percent of France's national box
office by 1925.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 232
In 1925 a young Armenian-Iranian, Ovanes
Ohanian (Oganianse), a Russian national who
studied film in Cinema Akademi Of Moscow,
returned to Iran. His goal was to establish a film
industry in the country. Since he found it
impossible to initiate any production without
professionals in the field, Ohanian decided to
begin a film school in Tehran. Within five years he
managed to run the first session of the school
under the name: Parvareshgahe Artistiye cinema
(The Cinema Artist Educational Center). Acting
and performance, rather than film production,
were the cornerstones of the institution. April 2011
50 percent of film scripts copyrighted in the US
prior to 1925 were written by women.
Harper's Index
Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ cost a record
setting $3.95 million to produce. However, it
grossed $9 million on its first release. May 2007
The primary steps in the commercialization of
sound cinema were taken in the United States in
the mid- to late 1920s. At first, the sound films
incorporating synchronized dialogue-known as
"talking pictures", or "talkies"-were exclusively
shorts; the earliest feature-length movies with
recorded sound included only music and effects.
The first feature film originally presented as a
talkie was The Jazz Singer, released in October
1927. A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone,
the leading brand of sound-on-disc technology.
Sound-on-film, however, would soon become the
standard for talking pictures. May
From 1926 to 1930, average weekly [movie]
attendance rose 45[in the US], to 90 million. In
just three years, from 1927 to 1930, the industry's
total assets more than tripled to $1 billion. Wall
street soon gave its imprimatur of respectability:
Kuhn Loeb & Company allied with Paramount,
Lehman Brothers with Loew's Incorporated, and
Goldman Sachs & Company with Warner
Brownstein, Power and the Glitter, P. 20
Mainly because due to a law change in 1927 the
cultural centers (chitalishta) served as venues to
show the first films to a major public, meaning
film could easily be accessed by the common
folks. April
Over 700 films were produced in Japan in 1927.
Cook, History, P. 576
The first movies starring Luis Pardo, the first
Peruvian silver screen hero, were released in
October 1927. April 2011
The British cinema had always been a stepchild
of the American industry, and during the twenties
it had almost ceased to exist. But in 1927
Parliament passed the Cinematograph Film Act,
setting strict quotas on the number of foreign
films that could be shown in the country; this had
the effect of stimulating domestic production and
investment. The British Film industry doubled in
size from 1927 to 1928 and the number of
features it produced rose from 20 to 128.
Cook, History, P. 309
26 Mar 1927
Alfred Hugenberg purchased the German film
company UFA. June 2007
From the late 20s to the 90s Egyptian filmmakers
have dominated the Arab cinematic world. April
John Grierson joined the British Empire
Marketing Board (EMB), a governmental agency,
and organizes the E.M.B. Film Unit. In the EMB,
and later in his work with the film unit of the British
General Post Office, Grierson gathered around
him a group of talented and energetic filmmakers,
including Edgar Anstey, Sir Arthur Elton, Stuart
Legg, Basil Wright, Humphrey Jennings, Harry
Watt, and Alberto Cavalcanti. January 2008
In 1929, through the initiative of a parson, a
gigantic research project was started about the
impact of film. It came to mark a new step in the
development of media research, perhaps also for
social science research in general. The project -
the Payne Fund Studies - took its name from the
private charity fund that financed it. The data
were gathered from 1929-32 and, from 1933
onwards, 12 books were published containing
the results. A journalist hired by the project
directors, wrote a popular science summary
entitled Our Movie Made Children. It had great
impact on the public debate about the moral
effects of Hollywood films, which in the summer of
1934 resulted in the detailed rules of decency in
film (the Production Code) finally being ruthlessly
Gripsrud, Understanding Media Cutlure, P.
The first local filmmaker in Botswana is said to
have been chief Molefi Pilane of the Bakgatla at
Mochudi in the 1930s. He picked up the cinema
habit in Johannesburg, as well as a liking for
township music, and gave popular slide and film
shows for paying audiences (notably The Arabian
Nights) in the Mochudi church hall-much to the
disgust of his Dutch Reformed missionaries who
considered them pornographic. May
Such “independent “ filmmaking naturally veered
towards the “avant-garde” and one film made in
this vein Limite (The Boundary, 1930), directed
by 18-year old Mario Peixoto, although not widely
seen at the time, has since gained such notoriety
that it topped the list of the "30 most significant
films in the history of Brazilian Cinema" by a poll
of Brazilian film critics in the 1980s.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
During the 1930s, the Misr Bank further financed
production by sending technicians abroad for
training and setting up the Misr Studio in 1935.
Production increased from six films in 1933 to 17
in 1936.
March 2011
Following the example of totalitarian countries,
the state authorities focused on the propagandist
aspect of film in the 1930s. In 1934, Estonian
Culture Film was founded at the Ministry of
Culture, which financed films promoting the
Estonians' way of life. April
In France, the restriction of imports resulted in
French films increasing their share of the
domestic market, from around ten per cent in the
late 1920's to a steady 30 per cent by the by the
mid 1930's.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 204
Hong Kong
Many founders of the Hong Kong film industry
have their roots in Shanghai, which they fled in
the 1930s and 1940s to get away from the
Japanese and Communists.
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
In 1930 the first Italian sound film was made,
called The Song of Love, inspired by a novel by
Pirandello and made by Gennaro Righelli.
ml April 2011
Annual production [of feature films] throughout the
1930s was always over 400 and reached a high
of 583 in 1937.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 361
Between 1930 and 1932, Eisenstein visited
Mexico with the purpose of directing a film that
would bring a breath of fresh air to the country:
¡Que viva México! (1930-1932). The movie could
not be concluded because funding was stopped.
Nevertheless, the images captured by the Soviet
director could be appreciated in different films
that were made from them. The aesthetic line of
vision on ¡Que viva México! (1930-1932) had a
great influence on the Mexican cinema. The
beautiful landscapes, the photogenic clouds and
the exaltation of the natives were three excellent
elements of this beautiful film. April
In 1930 the film magazine Kino was published for
the first time. Originator and Chief editor Lopes
Ribeiro played an important role in the
development and orientation of the Portuguese
cinema. After a journey to Russia he brought
Eisenstein's The General Line (1929) and
Pudovkin's Storm over Asia (1928) to Portugal,
which influenced public film reception as well as
film production in the following years. May
Five big studios (Fox, MGM, Paramount, RKO
and Warner) control the majority of USA movies. June 2007
May 1930
Sovkino is replaced by a vertically integrated
Soyuz film to manage all Soviet domestic film
and cinema activity. June 2008
World film production 1000 [feature] films.
Grun, Timetables, P. 501
It was not but until 1931 when the first Mexican
sound film was made: "Santa", directed by
Spanish-Hollywood actor Antonio Moreno
starring Lupita Tovar. April
Only one Hebrew feature Oded hanoded (Oded
the Wanderer, 1932), was made before sound
film production began in Palestine. This can
hardly be considered participation in the silent
era of film history, neither in terms of quantity, nor
chronologically. Talking pictures came to
Hollywood in 1927 and the last major silent
feature was released in 1930. April
The rising industry of the Mexican cinema
produced between 1932 and 1936, one hundred
films which are now considered classics of the
national cinema. Within a few years, Mexican
cinematography was exported to countries of the
Spanish language. 1936 would mark the
beginning of the complete internationalization of
the Mexican cinema, with the shooting of Allá en
el Rancho Grande (1936) by Fernando de
Fuentes. April
The maturation of film began in the late twenties,
resulting in the establishment of the Compania
Industrial del Film Espanol in 1932. By than
feature films were made on a professional level. April
By 1933 there were 1608 cinemas throughout
Argentina with 199 in the capital. However, the
taste of the cinema going public was for
Hollywood movies. Hollywood has dominated the
screens in Latin America for the first hundred
years of film history, averaging some 901f
viewing time in Argentina.
hp March 2011
A majority share holding in the largest company,
UFA was held by Nazi supporter Alfred
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 206
The Payne Fund study, Our Movie-Made Children,
argued that films shaped children's behavior. June 2007
Ub Iwerks invents the multiplane camera, which
allows animators to create a three-dimensional
effect within two-dimensional cartoons.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
22 Sep 1933
A Department of Film was incorporated into the
Chamber of Culture.
el#Newspapers August 2010
The American film industry comes under the
jurisdiction of the 'Hays' Code, called for the head
of the Motion Picture Producers and Directors
Association, William H. Hays. To be applied
before the film was even made it included such
famous clauses as any couple shown on a bed
having to keep one foot each on the floor.
February 2011
Triumph of the Will (Riefenstahl) won the Gold
Medal at the Venice Film Festival.
Chapman, CInemas, P. 219
In 1935 the dictatorial government enforced the
creation of the Department of National
Propaganda (DNP). From then on the film
industry depended on the decisions the DNP
made. Nine years later the DNP changed its
name into National Department of Information on
Popular Culture and Tourism (NDI). May
The Russian film The New Gulliver becomes the
first full-length feature to employ stop-motion
animation for the bulk of its running time.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
During the second half of the 1930's, the United
States Government embarked on an ambitious
public relations campaign to keep the American
people informed about the New Deal and the
necessity of its programs. In 1935, the
Resettlement Administration, an agency
established to provide aid to farmers and other
rural populations, decided to produce films as a
method of getting its message to a wider
segment of the public. The films produced under
the auspices of the Resettlement Administration
represent the only peacetime production by the
United States Government of films intended for
commercial release and public viewing. They
also heralded a new direction for American
documentary filmmaking in terms of cinéma tic
style and technical sophistication. August 2006
Triumph of the Will (Riefenstahl) won the Grand
Prix at the 1937 Paris Film Festival.
Chapman, CInemas, P. 219
The period of 1937 to 1948 marked a decade of
non-productivity in the history of Iranian national
cinema. One can find many reasons for these
years of cinema hibernation. The most obvious
causes are: Iran's general political crisis
generated by the Second World War; the
country's occupation by allies; the undermining of
the cinema industry by the establishment; and of
course, the domination of foreign films
(especially Hollywood). April 2011
By 1937, the British [film] industry had the second
largest annual output in the world (225 features),
and British films were competing strongly with
American films on an international scale.
Cook, History, P. 310
Snow White is released at cost of $1.5M.
Timeline.html January 2011
On the invitation of the Canadian Government,
John Grierson visited Canada to consult on the
possibilities of a national Canadian film
organization. In October 1939, he was appointed
Government Film Commissioner. Within six
years of accepting to head the National Film
Board, Grierson gathered a team of more than
800 filmmakers. May 2007)
In India, Metro Cinema, built by Metro-Goldwyn-
Mayer, opened in Bombay (later Mumbai). Initially
the cinema showed only MGM films. In the 1970s
an Indian business took over the cinema and it
became a popular venue for Bollywood film
premieres. May 2007
The USSR claimed to have produced forty-one
films in 1938.
Hobsbawm, The Age of extremes, P. 195
More than 80 million movie tickets (65 percent of
population) sold in U.S. each week. May 2007
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs grossed an
astronomical $8 million and was the top [film]
money-maker for the year. June 2007
The California Child Actor's Bill, better known as
the Coogan Law (after 21 year old Jackie
Coogan who sued his parents for mismanaging
and exploiting his career and spending his
acquired fortune as a young star) was enacted.
To protect the earnings of child actors, it required
that fifteen percent of a child's earnings be set
aside in a trust that cannot be tapped without a
court order until the child comes of age. Various
child labor laws and other similar acts have since
been established. Later, Coogan became known
for playing Uncle Fester on the Addams Family
television show. June 2007
During World War II, Canada became the
world's leading producer of Allied war
Cook, History, P. 497
The National Film Board (NFB) was formed as a
successor to the Canadian Government Motion
Picture Bureau. May 2007
In the forties, the Vera Cruz Film Company was
started in Sao Paulo to produce quality films to
compete internationally, employing filmmakers
from abroad.
20Brazilinema.htm June 2011
By the early 1940s, it was estimated that roughly
33 percent of the entire planet's population had
seen at least one Disney film.
Fraser, Weapons, P. 74
The development of cartoon film began in Europe
and then the United States, but despite being
taken up late it was more of a phenomenon in
Japan, where after about 1940 over forty percent
of the country's filmic output was in the form of
manga films. In the Western world cartoons have
always been seen as a child's phenomenon, but
in Japan manga has always been the method of
art for all of society's age groups.
rqyz.htm November 2010
In response to the government's antitrust
campaign against Hollywood's movie studios, the
Justice Department and the Big Five studios
hammer out a consent decree. Block booking of
films will continue, but in blocks no larger than five
films; trade shows and advanced screenings will
be held for exhibitors; and finally, the major
studios agree not to expand their holdings
without federal approval.
40_1949.cfm February 2011
In the United States there are 17,500 movie
theaters in operation, one for every 8,000 people.
40_1949.cfm February 2011
14 Feb 1940
Filming is disrupted at the Cinecitta studio in
Rome by a major fire
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
Apr 1940
John Grierson visits Australia to advise on the
establishment of an organization equivalent to the
National Film Board of Canada, but his report is
not acted upon until 1945.
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
Apr 1940
The first Canada Carries On newsreel is
produced by Stuart Legg.
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
Jul 1940
The Film Advisory Board is founded, with
Desmond Young at its head.
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
10 Aug 1940
At the 66th annual meeting in Chicago, the
WCTU adopts a resolution opposing the drinking
of alcoholic beverages in motion pictures
Leonard, The Forties
24 Sep 1940
Veit Harlan's infamous Jew Suss is released.
Fashioning an anti-Jewish film from a pro-Jewish
novel by Lion Feuchtwanger, Harlan's tale
depicts its title character, Suss Oppenheimer
(Ferdinand Marian) as a scheming rapist.
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
31 Oct 1940
Hollywood film industry pledges its entire
facilities to the Army for the production of movies
to be used in training draftees.
Leonard, The Forties
15 Nov 1940
The release of Frantisek Cap's Babicka
(Grandmother) is banned in many towns after
giving rise to anti-Nazi demonstrations.
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
31 Dec 1940
Agfa produce a number of short documentary
films using an experimental trichrome colour
1940/1940F.htm March 2011
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) has
called for a boycott of all Disney productions in
support of strikers at Disney who have been
battling for higher wages and recognition of their
40_1949.cfm February 2011
William Randolph Hearst forbids any mention of
the film “Citizen Kane” in his newspapers. He
considers the film to be defamatory.
40_1949.cfm February 2011
16 Jan 1941
Will H. Hays, president of the Motion Pictures
Producer and Distributors of America, Inc.,
denies Senator Wheeler's charge that the motion
picture industry if inciting American people to
Leonard, The Forties
Toward the end of 1942, NFB chairman John
Grierson asked Norman McLaren to put together
a team of young animators who could craft films
using conventional methods. Gradually, the
pioneers in the development of Canadian
animation began joining the NFB: Evelyn
Lambart (1942), Jean-Paul Ladouceur (1942),
René Jodoin (1943), Grant Munro (1944) and
Robert Verrall (1945).
ory/first-team.php January 2011
Tweety Forced to Wear Clothes Tweety Bird first
appears in "A Tale of Two Kitties." Animator Bob
Clampett originally draws him without feathers
but the Hays Office censorship bureau thinks the
plucked bird is just a little too naked. So
Clampett covers Tweety's titillating flesh with
yellow plumage. (Note: Clampett doesn't let this
pass quietly, though. In the episode, a cat yells to
his partner, "Give me the bird!" To which the
other cat responds, "If the Hays Office would let
me, I'd give him the bird, all right!")
timeline-of-tv-censorship/ February 2011
06 Apr 1942
The Japanese occupying army on Java installed
film censorship. February 2007
09 Jul 1942
MGM announces that executives earning $1,000
a week or more have accepted a 25-50 percent
salary cut to reduce expenses in the face of lower
movie box-office returns.
Merritt, The Fifties
12 Dec 1942
In the United States, J. Edgar Hoover's FBI
restarts its file on Charlie Chaplin, which
describes Chaplin as wanting more help for the
Soviet Union's war effort and tolerance and
understanding for its Communist system. [Note:
The U.S. and the Soviet Union were allies in a
war against Germany at the time. At the same
time, the USSR was undertaking extensive
espionage against the US. - SM] August 2006
Moacyr Fenelon founded the Atlântida studios in
Rio, where the chanchada (slapstick comedy)
form was perfected, wherein parody was
increasingly incorporated, partially on the
understanding that Brazilian films could never
match the technical brilliance of Hollywood.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
Since a large percentage of Iran's population
was illiterate they were incapable of reading the
explanatory inter titles, and many were unfamiliar
with European languages. Dubbing was the ideal
solution for distributors and cinema owners to
gain further profit. For this purpose, many
dubbing studios were established between 1943
and 1965. The demand for the development of
dubbing systems in Iran resulted in many local
exports in the field of sound reproduction. But it
also had its side effects, most notably that of
slowing down the development of sync sound
recording on the set for future activities. April 2011
Shortly after the World War II the government
created the Albanian Agency of Films (1945)
which later was transformed into the Albanian
Cinematographic State Enterprise (1947) at a
time when full nationalization of the network of
cinemas and of film imports and production took
place. The shooting of newsreels got started and
in May 1948 the first Albanian newsreel was
shown. In a country with a high rate of illiteracy in
the 1940s and 1950s the government placed
importance on increasing the number of cinemas
and mobile projectors and of imports of films
mainly from East European countries, France
and Italy. April
In 1945 the National Cinematographic State
Commission was founded, regulating production
and distribution and screening in all Yugo states.
In 1946 the commitee decentralized its work,
giving birth to the National Cinematography of
Slovenia. This resulted in the founding of the
Triglav production studio's and the Vesna
distribution company. The Triglav film (1946-
1975) produced, until 1963, 21 films. The first film
studio was in Trnovo, and in 1950 Triglav Film
set up filming and production facilities in the
Church of St. Joseph on Zrinjskega street in
Ljubljana. April
The MPPDA (Motion Picture Producers and
Distributors Association) set up its overseas
branch the Motion Picture Export Association
(MPEA) and, with the collusion of the US State
Department set up distribution networks in the
liberated and occupied countries.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 227-28
The government's Ministry of Information and
Propaganda formed a film department around
am May 2011
In Italy, Hollywood encountered a somewhat more
complex post-war challenge. Before the war, Italy
had boasted a strong domestic cinema industry
thanks partly to Hollywood's boycott. Another
reason was Mussolini, who for propaganda
reasons had been a strong supporter of Italian
cinema as an expression of national pride. In
1937, the Italian dictator had personally laid the
cornerstone at Rome's Cinecittà studio where he
posed before an enormous sign that read
'Cinema is the Strongest Weapon.' Following the
war, some US officials believed Italy's cinema
should be smashed apart due to the emergence
of Italian communism as a powerful political
force. The CIA, which played a key role in post-
war Italian politics, worked covertly to ensure that
the conservative Christian-Democrats won
elections. When the Italian Communists were
politically sandbagged, it didn't take long before
Hollywood movies began saturating Italian movie
screens. By 1946, Italian movies were earning
only 13 percent of domestic box-office receipts in
their domestic market.
Fraser, Weapons, P. 59-60
Only sixty-seven indigenous films were released
in 1946 in Japan.
Cook, History, P. 576
In 1946 the American film business grossed $1.7
billion domestically, the peak box-office year in
the 50-year history of the American film industry.
Mast, Short, P. 295
In 1947, when the General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade (GATT) was first established, the
closest it came to cultural issues was to
recognize special circumstances surrounding
cinematographic films, allowing some local
content quotas (Article IV). Although such film
quotas did allow for a minimum proportion of
screen time for films of a specified origin, cultural
protection received little attention in GATT. This
may have reflected the somewhat greater cultural
security of the signatory nations in a world that
was more culturally segregated than it is today.
Now, negotiations surrounding important trade
treaties include debates over cultural exemptions
and exceptions. This reflects the recognition of
the power of trade to shape cultures and the
perceived need of countries to raise or preserve
barriers against the intrusion' of foreign cultural
goods and influences.
mary_0286-27233757_ITM February 2011
In 1948 law 2027 was enacted to protect
Portuguese film production. A fund was created
to finance national productions and the cinema
exhibitors were obliged to show films as follows:
one week of every six was to be reserved for
domestic features. However the fund's capital
(approximately US $140 000) proved insufficient
to combat the serious crisis in production and
exhibitors never respected the quota imposed. May
After World War II, with the nationalisation of the
film-making industry (1948), the communist state
imposed its absolute control over film production
and distribution. Three large Studios were
established: one for feature films at Buftea, near
Bucharest, another one for documentaries and a
third one for cartoons. May
Cinema in Turkey meant mostly European and
American films until 1948, when the 75 percent
municipal tax on exhibition was reduced to 25
percent for indigenous films. After this tax break,
which would be the only state support for film until
the mid-1980s, an indigenous film industry based
on private capital and enterprise began to take
shape in Yesilcam Street of Beyoglu, Istanbul.
With the rapid increase in the number of film
companies, domestic films, movie theaters, and
audiences, cinema ceased to be an elitist activity
in big cities and became a popular entertainment
spreading to even the small villages in Anatolia
by the 1950s.
March 2011
Wheare Committee on Children and the Cinema
in UK. June 2008
In order to save money, Hollywood studios are
spending much less on high-priced pre-sold story
properties like novels and stage plays, relying
instead on less expensive original screenplays.
40_1949.cfm February 2011
US weekly cinema population peaks at 90
million. July 2008
The number of 'exhibition units' (including both
permanent cinemas and touring projectors)
increased from a mere 646 in 1949 to a massive
20,363 in 1965. Annual cinema attendances rose
from 139 million to 4,600 million over the same
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 360
In addition, the Occupation Statute of 1949,
which granted partial independence to the newly
created Federal Republic of Germany,
specifically forbade the imposition of import
quotas to protect German film production from
foreign competition, the result of lobbying by the
American industry as represented by the MPAA.
Germany August 2007
With the end of the civil war in 1949, Shanghai
filmmakers sympathetic to the Nationalists
accompanied Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan, and
after the economy stabilized, these exiled
filmmakers formed the heart of a new film
community in the 1950s. April 2011
During the past four years the number of
traditional movie theaters in the U.S. declined by
15, while during the same period the number of
drive-in movie theaters increased from 300 to
over 2,000.
40_1949.cfm February 2011
For a popular western called Winchester '49,
Wasserman negotiated for Jimmy Stewart the
first contract in which a star received a
percentage of a film's gross - and set a
precedent that eventually provided Hollywood's
biggest stars with wealth commensurate with
their fame.
Brownstein, Power, P. 182
MGM declared wage cutbacks and immense
Mast, Short, P. 295
The US Department of Justice announced the
Paramount decree that forced the film studios to
sell off their movie theaters. August 2007
National Film Act passes, expanding the National
Film Board's mandate.
August 2006
One of the first such responses to perceived
American cultural invasion was through the
National Film Act of 1950 that strengthened the
National Film Board. Its purpose was to help
promote Canadian films and give money to
projects that would help promote Canadian
otectionism February 2011
The arrival of television in the 1950's hit the
cinema hard in terms of audience, even if
television was government-run (YLE) until the
arrival of MTV3 and later Nelonen. Since then,
previous box office records have not been
broken. Domestic cinema has been heavily
supported by government grants. Finnish film
exports have not been popular.
Finland September 2007
From 1950 to the mid-1960's the Iranian film
industry grew rapidly. Many studios were
established as well as others that entered the
cycle of the film industry independently. There
were 324 films produced during this period
(1950-1965). By 1965 there were 72 movie
theatres in Tehran and 192 in other provinces. April 2011
During the late forties and early fifties the
Mexican cinema faced its first crisis. Due to the
introduction of television and the saturation of a
never ending stream of American products
combined with a lack of funding, Mexican cinema
declined. April
South Africa
A 30 year lull was broken in the early 1950s by
Jamie Uys South Africa's most commercially-
successful director (Gods Must be Crazy) when
he succeeded in attracting Afrikaner-dominated
capital to establish independent production. He
persuaded the government to provide a subsidy
for the making of local films, which continued until
the late 1980s. It was this subsidy which resulted
in films supportive of the military such as Kaptein
Caprivi (1972), made while the South African
Police supported the white Rhodesian regime.
ory.asp May 2011
More than 3 billion tickets sold at U.S. movie
theaters. November
Movie tickets had dropped from 3 billion plus in
1950 to less than 1 billion in 1970. November
21 Feb 1950
The Justice Department files a civil anti-trust suit
against Lee and Jacob Shubert with
monopolizing US theatre ownership.
Merritt, The Fifties
27 Apr 1950
Senator Edwin Johnson calls off a planned
investigation of alleged Hollywood immorality,
saying that he will give the industry leaders a
chance to clean house themselves.
Merritt, The Fifties
26 May 1950
Film Daily estimates that US motion picture
attendance dropped to an average of 70 million a
week in 1949 - lowest since 1934 and 29 million
a week below 1948.
Merritt, The Fifties
Cahiers du Cinéma (Notebooks on Cinema) is
an influential French film magazine founded in
1951 by André Bazin, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze
and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca. It developed from
the earlier magazine Revue du Cinéma (Review
of the Cinema) involving members of two Paris
film clubs — Objectif 49 (Objective 49) (Robert
Bresson, Jean Cocteau and Alexandre Astruc,
among others) and Ciné-Club du Quartier Latin
(Cinema Club of the Latin Quarter). Initially edited
by Éric Rohmer (Maurice Scherer), it included
amongst its writers Jacques Rivette, Jean-Luc
Godard, Claude Chabrol and François Truffaut.
23 May 1951
The American Broadcasting Company and
Paramount Theatres announce a merger
agreement in New York.
Merritt, The Fifties
05 Jul 1951
Time, Incorporated announces plans to
discontinue The March of Time newsreels after
16 years.
Merritt, The Fifties
08 Nov 1951
Quo Vadis, MGM pageant of ancient Rome
produced at a cost of nearly $7 million, premiers
in New York.
Merritt, The Fifties
Linking of goods to communication, i.e.
advertisements, lead to banning of [European]
films from U.S. because they advertise European
Innis, Idea File, 5-65 (1952)
The Alba Films complex was built to produce
Communist propaganda. November 2008
It was not until 1952 that animation of a more
industrial nature began to emerge at the NFB.
That year, Colin Low completed production on
The Romance of Transportation in Canada, a
whimsical look at the history of transportation
inspired by the style and techniques of the UPA
studio in the United States. Drawn on cels, the
film exhibits the playful and educational approach
that came to characterize a number of Canadian
ory/cartoon-tradition.php January 2011
The government was quicker to centralize the
apparatus of censorship, replacing the system of
regional boards in 1952 with a Board of Censors
that was empowered to certify films as either 'U'
(universal) or 'A' (adult) and to insist on such cuts
or alterations it deemed fit.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 331-32
Osamu Tezuka, Japanese cartoonist, dreamed
up Astro Boy and put his b-day at April 7, 2003.
His features soon defined the Japanese style
called anime. In 1963 Astro Boy was imported to
the US and 10-min. episodes ran until 1967. August 2007
The Soviets established the Documentary Film
Studio in Chisinau in 1952, later (1957) renamed
to Moldova-Film Studio. The history of Moldovan
cinema is directly linked to the Moldova-Film
Studio, being the first and only production
company in the country. The first films released in
1952 were documentaries. April
05 Apr 1952
Howard Hughes discontinues production of 11
films at RKO Radio Pictures, claiming that the
scripts were written by authors suspected of
Communist sympathies.
Merritt, The fifties
23 May 1952
Birth of a Nation, D.W. Griffiths 37 year old film
classic, is banned in Maryland for being 'morally
bad and crime-inciting.'
Merritt, The Fifties
25 May 1952
In Burstyn v Wilson-the Miracle case-the US
Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to
deny a license for exhibition of a film on the
grounds that it is 'sacrilegious'. Films are,
contrary to the Court's 1915 opinion, 'a significant
medium for the communication of ideas' and thus
entitled to protection of freedom of speech under
the First and Fourteenth Amendments of the US
Constitution. March 2007
26 Nov 1952
Bwana Devil, the first 3d film requiring audience
use of Polaroid eye-glasses, premiers in
Merritt, The FIfties
09 Dec 1952
Warner Brothers Pictures announces plans to sell
its 300 theatres to Fabian Enterprises
Incorporated in compliance with an antitrust
Merritt, The FIfties
The East Bengal Provincial Govt. of newly
created state of Pakistan took initiative to start a
film division in 1953-54 and for that purpose a
studio and laboratory went in to operation in
1955 in Tejgaon, Dhaka. The Film Development
Corporation (F.D.C.) was established by the
legislation of East Bengal Provincial Assembly in
1958. It opened a new vistas for the film industry
of Bangladesh. In the meantime, there were
several attempts to produce films in Dhaka
between 1931 to 1956.
April 2011
Following independence in 1953, both the Royal
Lao Government and the Lao Patriotic Front
turned out propaganda newsreels and
documentaries in support of their respective
s/Laos_Cultural_Profile/-927.html March
01 Feb 1953
20th Century Fox announces plans to convert its
'entire production output' to the three-dimensional
'Cinema-Scope' process. The company's first
Cinema-Scope release will be The Robe, a $4.2
million film.
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Feb 1953
Bwana Devil, first full-length film in three-
dimensional Natural VIsion, premiers in NY.
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Feb 1953
Howard Hughes is reelected chairman of RKO
Pictures and its producing subsidiary, RKO
Radio Pictures, Inc.
Merritt, The FIfties
28 Feb 1953
Warner Brothers Pictures Inc. splits into two
companies in compliance with a government
antitrust decree.
Merritt, The Fifties
02 Mar 1953
Citizens groups in New Mexico halt filming of the
controversial movie Salt of the Earth, which has
been charged with employing Communist
screenwriters and actors.
Merritt, The Fifties
06 Mar 1953
Mexican actress Rosaura Revueltas, star of the
controversial film Salt of the Earth, voluntarily
leaves the US for Mexico.
Merritt, The Fifties
11 Apr 1953
Charlie Chaplin says he finds it 'virtually
impossible' to continue film work in the US due to
'vicious propaganda by powerful reactionary
Merritt, The Fifties
28 May 1953
Walt Disney's Melody, the first animated three-
dimensional cartoon in technicolor, premiers in
Merritt, The Fifties
27 Jul 1953
Screen Actors Guild adopts a bylaw barring
Communists from membership.
Merritt, The Fifties
In 1954, a film unit was started under the Public
Relations Division of East Bengal Government
headed by Nazir Ahmed.
April 2011
25 Jan 1954
Charles Lindbergh's autobiography The Spirit of
St. Louis is sold to film producers Leland
Hayward and Billy Wilder for cash and profit-
sharing rights estimated at $1 million.
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Mar 1954
RKO Pictures Corporation stockholders approve
sale of the company to Howard Hughes.
Merritt, The Fifties
12 Jul 1954
LA Superior Court rules that film studios acted
within their rights in denying employment to 23
writers and actors who refused to testify before
the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Merritt, The Fifties
After failing to agree to terms for a film import
quota with the Spanish authorities, the Motion
Picture Export Association of America (MPEAA)
boycotts Spain. As well as a limit on imports,
Spain asks for eight Spanish films a year to be
distributed in North America and for US
distributors in Spain to handle one Spanish film
for every five American imports. Spanish
companies take advantage of the situation by
restructuring the market, including the acquisition
of some local branches of American distributors. May 2008
18 Jul 1955
Howard Hughes sells RKO and its stock of 100-
600 films to the General Tire and Rubber
Company for $25 million.
Merritt, The Fifties
29 Aug 1955
20th Century Fox sues Frank Sinatra for $1
million after he walks off the set of Rodgers and
Hammerstein's Carousel in Boothbay Harbor,
Merritt, The Fifties
31 Aug 1955
A LA federal court dismissed Ring Lardner's suit
for $25,000 against 20th Century Fox, based on
his discharge as a film writer in 1947 after he
refused to answer HUAC questions on his
alleged Communist affiliations, following an out-
of-court agreement.
Merritt, The Fifties
02 Sep 1955
US Ambassador to Italy Clare Booth Luce
confirms that she refused to attend the Venice
Film Festival if it included the controversial US
film Blackboard Jungle, but State Department
officials deny she tried to 'censor' the festival or
was responsible for the film's withdrawal in favor
of Interrupted Melody.
Merritt, The Fifties
06 Dec 1955
Motion Pictures Association of America refuses
to grant its seal of approval to Otto Preminger's
new film The Man with the Golden Arm, on
ground that it deals with drug addiction, a subject
forbidden under the MPAA Production Code.
Merritt, The Fifties
07 Dec 1955
United Artists resigns from the Motion Picture
Association of America in protest over its ruling
against the Man with the Golden Arm.
Merritt, The FIfties
Cinema attendance reached 817.5 million.
Germany May 2008
Hanoi's Vietnam Film Studio was established in
1956 and the Hanoi Film School opened in 1959.
am May 2011
11 Dec 1956
Motion Picture Association of America revises
its censorship code to permit filming 'within the
limits of good taste' of scenes dealing with illicit
sale and use of narcotics, abortion, prostitution
and the kidnapping of children.
Merritt, The FIfties
In 1957, in a village in the mountains of the Aurès,
Algerians made a decision to establish their own
cinema, by which they could bear witness of their
own situation. April
The National Film Archives were established in
1957. May
MGM closed its cartoon studio in a panic over
diminishing audiences due to television. May 2008
Number of drive-in theaters in U.S. peaks near 5,
000. June 2009
20 Jun 1958
FBI headquarters learned of Ronald Reagan's
desire to star in the film "The FBI Story." The
bureau rejected the idea because of Reagan's
association with Communist front organizations
in the 1940s. May 2008
It was in France that the highest proportion of
new directors came to the fore: 67 directors
made their first features in 1959-60.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 241
In 1959, in Libya there were 394 films from
America, 126 from Italy and 147 from Egypt.
March 2011
In Morocco in 1959, of 2,267 films in circulation, 1,
061 were American, 492 French, 347 Egyptian,
108 Indian, the rest from other European
March 2011
In the sixties one major emerged in Cambodian
cinema, Norodom Sihanouk, being the King of
Cambodia up to the present day. His Royal
Highness produced and directed fifteen full
features and numereous short video's. His first
renowned film was released in 1966.
March 2011
Denmark abolished film censorship in 1960
(except for children's films) and legalized
pornography in 1969.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 243
In 1960 the German film industry produced some
70 feature films, almost exclusively for local
consumption in their simple themes and
conventional styles.
Mast, Short History of the Movies, P. 501
A film finance corporation was set up by
government to assist film production.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 331
After 1960, the Senegalese film industry
blossomed during the next twenty years. Ousame
Sembene, the founding father of African cinema,
shot his first short in 1963. He is the most
renowned filmmaker of the Dark Continent,
capturing the life and identity of African people in
his subtle filming style. April
In the 1960s, cinema courses were included in
the programs of the theater departments in the
Language, History and Geography faculties of
Ankara and Istanbul Universities and in the Press
and Publications High School of Ankara
University. A cinema branch was also
established in the Art History Department of the
State Fine Arts Academy. The Union of Turkish
Film Producers, and the State Film Archives also
were established in the 1960s. The State Film
Archives became the Turkish Film Archives in
1969. During the same period, the Cinema-TV
Institute was founded and annexed to the State
Academy of Fine Arts. The Turkish State
Archives also became part of this organization. In
1962, the Cinema-TV Institute became a
department of Mimar Sinan University.
ml March 2011
It was during the 1960s that the study of film
made its first inroads into the academy. In 1960
the British filmmaker Throld Dickinson took up an
appointment at the Slade School of Fine Arts in
London where he taught courses on film and in
1969 set up the Slade Film History Register as a
central record of film material likely to be of
interest to historians in the same way as the
National Register of Archives had done for
manuscript resources.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 16
The American Motion Pictures Producers
Association requests that Alfred Hitchcock recut
his new film Psycho for classification. Mr
Hitchcock waits a week, sends the film back
unaltered and has it passed.
February 2011
07 Mar 1960
Fourteen thousand AFL-CIO Screen Actors Guild
walk out at seven of Hollywood's eight big studios
to support demands for residual payments to
actors in movies sold to TV.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
28 Sep 1960
A number of film-makers met at the New York
office of producer Lewis Allen to found what they
called ‘The New American Cinema Group’.”
From this group would derive the term “New
American Cinema."
February 2011
Luis Bunel shot Viridiana in 1961 winning the
Palme d'Or in Cannes much to the dissatisfaction
of the Regime. It remained banned until after
Franco's death. Bunuel's movie resulted in a
wave called "New Spanish Cinema" with movies
featuring social criticism of the Franco era. April
22 Aug 1961
The Wall Street Journal reports that Japan and
India rank first and second in the production of
feature-length motion pictures.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
In 1962 the first production company was
founded, C.A.S.B.A.H.-Films. April
06 Feb 1962
Warner Brothers Pictures Inc. purchases the
movie rights to the musical My Fair Lady from
CBS for a record $5.5 million.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
30 Oct 1962
Persons connected with the production of the film
Cleopatra say the picture has already cost $35
million, easily the most expensive film ever made.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
American film maker Gregory Markopoulos
enters Twice a Man into the third Experimental
Film Competition at Knokke-le-Zoute in Belgium
where he wins a $2,000 prize. March
Since independence in 1963 Kenyans have been
producing films at the average rate of one feature
film every four years. April
16 Jan 1963
Wall Street Journal reports that independent film
production companies produced about 812640066f all
motion pictures made in the US in 1962. The
figures indicate a continuation of a steady
decline in output by major Hollywood film
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
At the present time, film is still in its manuscript
phase, as it were; shortly it will, under TV
pressure, go into its portable, accessible, printed-
book phase. Soon, everyone will be able to have
a small, inexpensive film projector that plays an 8-
mm sound cartridge as if on a TV screen.
McLuhan, Understanding Media, P. 291-92
The talkies were the doom of Russian film-
making because, like any backward or oral
culture, Russians have an irresistible need for
participation that is defeated by the addition of
sound to the visual image. Both Pudovkin and
Eisenstein denounced the sound film but
considered that if sound were used symbolically
and contrapuntally, rather than realistically, there
would result less harm to the visual image.
McLuhan, Understanding Media, P. 287
In 1964 the National Center of the Algerian
Cinema (C.N.C) was established by government
decree. That same year the of "the National
Institute of the Cinema" (I.N.C.) opened its doors,
placed under the authority of the C.N.C and the
cineclub was born; "Algerian National Cineclub". April
From 1964 on, film could be subsidized by the
government, making way for a new generation of
Belgium January 2009
By 1964, the NFB was supporting feature
production in both French and English, but
Canadian feature production averaged only four
films per year.
Cook, History, P. 497
By 1964 annual production had grown to 480
feature films, 3,000 newsreels, 1,400 scientific
documentaries, and 200 cartoons.
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 370
The movie that really boosted the economy of
Iranian cinema and initiated a new genre was
Ganj-e-Qarun (Croesus Treasure) made in 1965
by Siamak Yasami. Yasami had worked with
Kooshan prior to establishing his own company;
Porya Film, in 1960. A huge financial success,
Ganj-e-Qarun grossed over seventy million Rials
(one million dollars). The theme of the film
concerns the worthless and desperate life of the
upper middle class in contrast with the poor and
happy working class, which is 'rich' in morals. April 2011
In 1965 the second government of Manuel Prado
passes legislation making it favorable to produce
films in cooperation with Mexico. a direct result of
this cooperation was the establishment of the
company called "Filmadora Peruana". This
enterprise supported the production of films
using the extensive Mexican star-system for
many years. April 2011
Yesilcam, which soon became the little
Hollywood of Turkey with its own genres and star
system, enjoyed its heyday between 1965 and
1975, with a yearly production of two hundred to
three hundred films.
March 2011
In 1966 the National Film Institute (INC) was
created and in 1967 production subsidies were
introduced. In 1969 another state agency
Embrafilme was formed initially to promote
Brazilian films abroad and by 1975 it had
absorbed all of the functions of INC and was
enforcing a screen quota as well as subsidizing
local production.8 From 1966 to 1971, the annual
Brazilian film production climbed from 28 to 94,
and peaked at 102 in 1980, the highest number
of feature films ever produced in Brazil in a single
year, whereas the screen quota which was raised
provisionally to 63 days per year per theatre in
1969 was set at 140 days per year in 1980.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
In 1966, René Jodoin, one of Norman McLaren's
initial collaborators, took on the responsibility of
setting up an animation studio at the NFB's
French Program, where his leadership was
guided by a philosophy derived from McLaren's.
With few resources, Jodoin looked to the early
stages of animation at the NFB for inspiration,
producing Chansons Contemporaines, a series
of short films by young animators based on
popular Quebec songs.
ory/french-animated-films.php January 2011
A sudden halt was signalled by the 'Cultural
Revolution' (1966-70) during which production all
but ceased (only eleven films were completed
during those years) and the film industry in
common with all aspects of Chinese life, was
purged in an attempt to impose revolutionary
Marxist ideology on all section of society.
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 370
In 1966 Turkey was fourth, just behind India, in
world film production, with 238 films.
March 2011
In 1967 the "Algerian Center of the Cinema"
(C.A.C) was established to further centralize the
film industry. The C.A.C. replaced the CNC and
INC which were subsequently dissolved. April
Canadian Film Development Corporation (now
Telefilm Canada) established as recommended
by Firestone Committee.
August 2006
Up until the end of the sixties, the situation of the
cinemas in the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg
remained practically unchanged. In 1967 the
screens - 48 at that time - together registered 2
052 630 admissions. Most cinemas offered
seats for 300 to 800 spectators, the largest one
being located in the south of the country in Esch-
sur-Alzette. In Luxemburg the French and
German cinemas all had a screen that
specialised in the particularly popular
productions of the two neighbouring countries.
The two major exhibiting (family) companies also
took care of the distribution of German films in
the whole Grand Duchy.
April 2011
Though independence was achieved in 1956, it
was not until twelve years later that the first
feature films directed by Moroccan filmmakers
were made. April
U.S. movie attendance drops to 20 million tickets
weekly (10404f population). January
Burkina Faso
Created in 1969, the Pan-African film and
television festival of Ouagadougou has evolved
into an internationally recognized and respected
event in not only the African continent but in the
world at large. Alimata Salambere, the cultural
minister of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 1991 was
one of the founders of FESPACO. At its third
edition in 1972, the name of the festival became
FESPACO (Festival Pan-Africain du Cinema et
de la Television de Ouagadougou). FESPACO
became an institution by governmental decree on
January 7, 1972.
May 2011
With West German production hitting an all-time
high of 121 films per year in 1969 and film
attendance slipping at the rate of one million per
year, the late sixties and early seventies
witnessed a wave of theater closings all over the
country. The drivel produced by the first three
years of FFA (Filmforderungsanstalt) had
alienated serious film-goers, bored the general
public and brought the West German film industry
to the brink of another financial crisis.
Cook, History of Narrative Film, P. 606
07 Apr 1969
A legal search for betting paraphernalia in the
home of Robert Eli Stanley has turned up a
movie and projector. Stanley has been
prosecuted for possessing obscene material. In
Stanley v Georgia, the Supreme Court
unanimously strikes down laws prohibiting private
possession of obscene materials on the grounds
of a constitutional right to privacy. May 2008
During the 1970s, with a drastic cut in imports
ensuing from an isolationist policy followed by the
government in the field of culture, film production
marked a significant increase with 5 to 6 feature
films a year at the beginning of the period up to 8
to 10 such films to come up to 14 feature films a
year in the 1980s. April
The Australian Film Development Corporation
was established to act as a film investment bank. February 2010
The Experimental Film and Television Fund was
established in Australia. The first production it
backs is a documentary about anti-Vietnam
demonstrations in Sydney. February 2010
The 1970s was the period in which Austrian film
production reached its lowest ebb with only five
to ten films being produced each year. The
reactionary Austrian film industry succumbed to
the rise of television whilst at the same time; a
new, young, and critical generation of film-
makers - the Austrian avant-garde movement -
emerged with productions that were often
Austria January 2009
Many Canadian movies got made thanks to the
tax shelters. In the early 1970s only about ten
feature films were being made annually in
Canada, most with exceedingly modes budgets
of $250,000. By the end of the decade nearly
eighty features were being produced each year
and with budgets of about $2 million per picture.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 241
René Jodoin’s pioneering use of computerization
made him a visionary. As far back as the early
1970s, Pierre Moretti and Peter Foldès
collaborated with Nestor Burtnyk and Merceli
Wein, two experts at the National Research
Council of Canada who were working on an
experimental computer-assisted animation
system. Two films dealing with metamorphosis
were produced as a result of their group effort:
Metadata (P. Foldès, 1970) and Hunger (P.
Foldès, 1974).
ory/new-technologies.php January 2011
Hong Kong
The modern Hong Kong film industry came into
its own with the release of the classic Bruce Lee
films in the 1970s, which were financed in part by
American investors. The industry was its peak in
mid 1980s when it produced dozens of critically-
acclaimed box office successes. and movie fans
often went to theaters almost every night.
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
Since the early 1970s the pre-eminent film
studies journal has been Screen, which has been
at the vanguard of theoretical developments in
the fields of psychoanalysis in the 1970s, gender
studies in the 1980s, and reception theory in the
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 18
The Iranian film industry peaked in the early
1970s when it produced around 90 films a year,
bu the increasing costs of production and the
uncertainty of box-office success (ticket prices
were deliberately kept low by the regime) meant
that the industry was already facing a crisis
before the Islamic Revolution of 1979 forced the
Shah into exile and ushered in a period of even
greater uncertainty.
Chapman, Cinemas, P. 398
In 1970 the Qatar Cinema Company was
established, providing films to the local audience. May 2011
The introduction of state subsidies enabled the
diversification of the film production (as many as
20-30 feature films were produced early in the
1970s), the number of cinema halls increased
from 338 (1938) to over 6,000 in the 1970s, and
that of spectators from 41 million in 1938 to 190-
200 million per year in the 80s. The national film
production was joined in the 1970s by 120-140
films imported every year, mainly from Central
and East European states May
There was a massive withdrawal of American
money from British film production. June 2006
India overtook Japan as the leading world
producer with 431 features.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 332
The first VCassetteR or VCR were sold by Sony
in 1971.
ideo.htm February 2011
Dec 1971
In December 1971 a new law on cinema (no.
7/71) replaced the old one (no. 2 027). It had
been created by the State's Department of
Information and Tourism and it redesigned the
NDI into the Portuguese Institute for Cinema
(PIC). This was to direct and coordinate all
national cinematographic activities. The main
source of income of the PIC came from an extra
levy on cinema tickets. May
By 1972, when the well-equipped building of
Afghan Film Organization was completed, film
culture spread throughout the country.
April 2011
John Water’s Pink Flamingo debuts introducing a
queer edge to U.S. cinema that includes drag
queen Diving.
January 2011
The Godfather sets a box office record of $1
million a day for the first month. July 2007
University of Utah, Ed Catmull develops an
animation scripting language and creates an
animation of a smooth shaded hand. Ref: E.
Catmull, "A System for Computer Generated
Movies", Proceedings of the ACM National
Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98
Seminal Graphics collection.)
Timeline.html January 2011
Xerox PARC computer scientists Dick Shoup
and Alvy Ray Smith record the first video image
on the first computer paint system, SuperPaint,
paving the way for computer animation and later
earning them Emmy and Academy Awards.
timeline/1970-decade/enus.html January
National Research Council of Canada releases
Hunger/La Faim directed by Peter Foldes and
featuring Burtnyk and Wein interactive keyframing
techniques. Ref: N. Burtnyk and M. Wein,
"Interactive Skeleton Techniques for Enhancing
Motion Dynamics in Key Frame Animation",
Communications of the ACM, 19(10), October
1976. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics
Timeline.html January 2011
The Capital Cost Allowance (CCA) in the Income
Tax Act was extended to feature film production.
The CCA allowed Canadians to deduct 100 per
cent of their investments in Canadian film
August 2006
This situation changed after 1974 when the Film-
Fernseh-Abkommen (Film and Television
Accord) was agreed between the Federal
Republic's main broadcasters, ARD and ZDF,
and the German Federal Film Board (a
government body created in 1968 to support film-
making in Germany). This accord, which has
been repeatedly extended up to the present day,
provides for the television companies to make
available an annual sum to support the
production of films which are suitable for both
theatrical distribution and television presentation.
(The amount of money provided by the public
broadcasters has varied between 4.5 and 12.94
million Euros per year). Under the terms of the
accord, films produced using these funds can
only be screened on television 24 months after
their theatrical release. They may appear on
video or DVD no sooner than six months after
cinema release. As a result of the funds provided
by the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen, German films,
particularly those of the New German Cinema,
gained a much greater opportunity to enjoy box-
office success before they played on television.
Germany June 2007
In 1975, film got governmental attention, which
included introduction of National Award Film
Grant Fund. recognition of film as an industry,
exemption of taxes on children and educational
April 2011
A Unesco survey of 1975 found that India was the
only nation in the developing world to have a
larger audience for domestic films than for
imported films.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 332
By 1975 it was not unusual for a single
production company like Paramount or Twentieth
Century Fox to have all of its capital tied up in five
or six films annually, everyone a blockbuster with
an average budget of four to seven million dollars
(compare this figure with MGM's average of forty-
two features per year during the thirties).
Cook, History, P. 636
Steven Spielberg's Jaws will be the first film to
earn more than $100 million. June 2007
From the mid-1980s the spread of videocassette
recorders and the arrival of private TV channels
such as RTL Television provided new
competition for theatrical film distribution.
Cinema attendance, having rallied slightly in the
late 1970s after an all-time low of 115.1 million
visits in 1976, dropped sharply again from the
mid-1980s to end at just 101.6 million visits in
1989. However, the availability of a back
catalogue of films on video also allowed for a
different relationship between the viewer and an
individual film, whilst in the long term, private TV
channels brought new money into film finance
and provided a launch pad for new talent to later
move into film.
Germany May 2008
As early as in 1976 the Centre de Diffusion et
d'Animation Cinématographique (CDAC -
Centre for Propagation and Stimulation of
Cinema) had been established. The organisation
which united all the ciné-clubs of Luxemburg,
aimed at reviving cinema activities in the rural
areas and towns, where they had all but died out.
April 2011
22 Apr 1976
Director Ingmar Bergman left Sweden due to
taxation. May 2007
Not until 1977-1978 Bulgarian movies reached
maturity, themes and issues initiated from the
directors minds rather than being dictated by
State rulings and censorship. April
In 1977 at least one company (Columbia) has all
of its capital, reportedly twenty million dollars,
invested in a single film (Close Encounters of the
Third Kind) and since that time, production
budgets of fifteen to twenty million dollars have
not been uncommon.
Cook, History, P. 636
In San Francisco, the Gay Film Festival of Super-
8 Films becomes what is likely the world's first
gay and lesbian film festival
January 2011
Cuba has remained the main supporter of Latin
American film culture, hosting the annual
International Festival of Latin American Cinema
since 1979 and establishing the Foundation for
Latin American Cinema in 1985.
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 321
Dominican Republic
The National Film library was established in 1979,
under the direction of Agliberto Meléndez. The
institution ceased to exist during the reign of
Balaguer in 1986 and only recently plans have
been announced to re-open the institute.
html April 2011
After the Revolution of 1979, amidst the normal
disorganization created by such a great upheaval
and the non-existence of clear-cut rules and
regulation Iran's cinema was in disarray. After
1983, when finally filmmaking rules were outlined
according to the post-revolution values and
norms, violence and sex were forced out of Iran's
cinema. Moreover due to the confiscation of
many cinemas and film production companies
and their control by the government, there was
less concentration on profit making as before.
These factors together with the increased skill of
Iranian filmmakers, who developed in the 70's
like Kiarostami, Beyzaie, Mehrjui, etc, had a
positive impact on Iran's filmmaking industry.
Despite the limitations, Iranian directors made
some movies, which won the admiration of critics
around the world. In that period, young
filmmakers such as Mohsen Makhmalbaf,
Ebrahim Hatamikia, Ja'afar Panahi
Rakhshan Banietema'd Majid Majidi and
Abolfazl Jalili who had entered cinema each
with his own different orientation gradually
gained enough experience and expertise to
employ various elements of cinema and have
their share in its development. April 2011
Williams Committee Report on Obscenity and
Film Censorship. March 2007
An attempt to create a common market
throughout Francophone Africa in the 1980s
through the Consortium Inerafricain de
Distribution Cinématographique failed because
states did not reform their tax laws to allow it and
did not pay their subsidies to support it.
Chapman, CInemas of the World, P. 321
The Interafrican Consortium of Cinematograph
Distribution (CIDC) bought out near total
monopoly of film distribution in francophone black
Africa from a subsidiary of French distributor
UGC. May 2007
The film Bye Bye Brazil was directed by Carlos
Diegues. It brought international recognition to
Brazilian cinema. June 2011
Towards the 1980s, the government of Nigeria
formulated and implemented policy that ensured
a lot more local content was on air on Nigerian
television stations as opposed to American and
other foreign television productions. This was a
significant step as it encouraged local production
to grow.
movies-welcome-substitute-419-scams May
Due to the economic depression during the
eighties production of films was no longer viable.
The national cinematography was seriously
hampered by the uncontrollable inflation
diminishing income and increasing interest on
bank loans. For that reason ingenious and cheap
technical resources became apparent like the
video and films were once again solely produced
along the popular lines of the mass
entertainment. April 2011
The number of spectators, 190-200 million
persons per year, in the '80s decreased to 130
million in 1990 and only 12,5 million in 1996. May
1 percent of U.S. homes have VCRs. June 2007
The Australian government introduced [in June]
the so-called 10BA tax concession giving
backers of Australian film production a 150 per
cent tax allowance on their investment. The
number of Australian films produced in 1981 was
15. By the end of the decade, 227 feature films,
78 made-for-TV movies, 70 television mini-
series and 521 documentaries were produced
using the 10BA write-off. June 2007
The Historical Journal of Film, Radio and
Television, founded in 1981, has been the
leading forum for film historians, seeking to place
films within their social, political, industrial and
cultural contexts.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 18
28 Dec 1981
One of the most important events in the cinematic
history is the establishment of The National Film
library (CN), was established on the 28th of
December 1981. The CN is part of the
Department Ecuadorian Culture (CCE), granted
with UNESCO funds aimed at preservation the
national moving images. Its main preoccupation
is the evaluation of Ecuadorian cinema. In 1984
the CN initiated an investigation on the national
cinematographic culture and in 1989, it started
the physical recovery of films. In that same year, it
obtained the "Declaration of the national cinema"
by the highest authority meaning a formal
safekeeping of its existence. July
By 1982 the number of screens had diminished
to eleven of which six operated in the capital and
five in the rest of the country. As for the number of
admissions it had declined to 550 000. The
activity of the ciné-clubs was in many towns the
only means of support to the cinema. In
Luxemburg City the Ciné-Club 80 fought against
the decline of cinema screens all over the Grand
Duchy. It was the members of Ciné-Club 80 who,
at the end of 1983, inaugurated the Ciné Utopia.
This cinema offering 140 seats was situated in
an old garage and with its art-house
programming it was the only alternative to the
commercial cinemas. After some initial
difficulties the Ciné Utopia managed to take off
and in 1985 the 'Utopists' constructed a second
screen next to the first.
April 2011
With the return to civilian rule in 1983, the Radical
government abolished censorship and put two
well known film makers in charge of the National
Film Institute, Manuel Antín and Ricardo Wullicher
(1948-). Antín's granting of credits to young and
established directors and his internationalist
strategy had an immediate effect.
hp March 2011
The film industry was India's sixth-largest industry
employing 300,000 people and grossing the
equivalent of $600 million annually.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 332
In February 1983, the Jordanian Cinema Club
was established, which played an important role
in organising and staging cinematic exhibitions
of exceptional artistic quality and commenting on
them. They also exerted efforts to disseminate
the culture of the cinema. A pioneering step in
reviving Jordan's film industry which has been
paralysed since the late 1960s and early 1970s
after producing namely documentaries on the
Palestinian-Israeli struggle. The efforts have met
with some success, throughout the eighties and
nineties several Jordanian productions were
screened in the film festival circuit. May
The number of jobs in the film production industry
increased by 175between 1983 and 2000.
Harper's Index
In the 1985/86 financial year, a record 42
Australian feature films were produced. The
largest contributing factor to the upsurge in
production during the mid-'80s was the attractive
investment opportunity offered by 10B and 10BA
tax incentives.
June 2007
India produced 912 feature-length films in 1985-a
world record for any country in a single year. June 2008
The Studio Ghibli was founded by film animators
Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata in suburban
Tokyo. May 2007
In 1985, Margaret Thatcher abolished the Eady
Levy - a tax on box office receipts - that had been
subsidizing British movies. The immediate
consequence was reduced output of British
movies: in 1985, more than 50 films were
produced, but by 1989 output had plummeted to
30 moves.
Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction, P. 70
20 percent of US households have VCRs. May 2007
Ken Perlin at NYU publishes a paper on noise
functions for textures. He later applied this
technique to add realism to character
animations. Ref: K. Perlin, "An Image
Synthesizer", Computer Graphics, 19(3), July
1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics
Timeline.html January 2011
There are 676 cinema screens in Australia. June 2007
Hong Kong
At one time the Hong Kong movie industry was
the world's third largest behind India and the
United States. The golden period for the industry
was between 1986 and 1992. In 1993, Hong
Kong made a record 200 films. In 1992, the
industry grossed a record $155 million.
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
3.5 percent of Italian families have VCRs. May 2007
Mauritius Film Development Corporation was
established as a statutory body to promote
filmmaking in the country, which has a tax-free
regime for productions. May 2007
South Africa
The years following 1986 saw the sustained
development of a domestic anti-apartheid
cinema financed by capital looking for tax breaks
and international markets.
ory.asp May 2011
On January 23, 1986, a new cinema law aimed
to ensure support for those working in cinema
and music. A reorganization of the film industry
began in 1987 to address problems and assure
its development. The Ministry of Culture
established the Professional Union of Owners of
Turkish Works of Cinema the same year.
ml March 2011
In 1986, US domestic revenues for movies was
$4.4 billion, while foreign sales were $2.3 billion.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 245
The shift to a market economy in 1986 dealt a
blow to Vietnamese filmmaking which struggled
to compete with video and television. The
number of films produced in Vietnam has
dropped off sharply since 1987.
am May 2011
The Film Censorship Board was replaced by the
Office of Film and Literature Classification
(OFLC), an independent, non-statutory body
within the federal Attorney-General's portfolio.
The OFLC's first Director was John Dickie, who
served until 13 January 1998.
June 2009
The Canadian federal government introduced
new foreign investment guidelines in the film and
video distribution sector. The guidelines require
any new foreign distributor to handle only those
films to which they hold worldwide distribution
rights or in which they have invested more than
50 per cent of the production costs.
August 2006
The US Congress passed the National Film
Preservation Act. A United States National Film
Preservation Board was empowered to add 25
films each year to the National Film Registry for
preservation in the Library of Congress. Any
American films more than five years old can be
nominated, regardless of length or releases
history. June 2009
After 1989, the Menem government introduced
credits and a percentage of box office and video
sales to the film industry and Argentine cinema
has undergone a revival in the last few years. The
hard economic fact is that by far the vast majority
of screens in the country show Hollywood product,
and home-grown movies have to compete on
these very commercial terms.
hp March 2011
In May 1989 it became compulsory for consumer
advice to be included on advertising material for
all non-G rated films. Australia was the first
country to implement this system, which has
since been adopted in many other countries
including the US.
October 2008
In 1989, the year in which the country
experienced the most democratic election in over
a century, Brazilian film production slumped to 25
features and in April 1990, on the same day that
the government froze a percentage of all bank
accounts, the Ministry of Culture was closed and
Embrafilme was disbanded. The Brazilian film
industry virtually collapsed overnight.
ays/intro_braziliancinema/ June 2011
Before 1989 the film industry produced 25
features a year, 25 TV films and 200 shorts a
year, shown to audiences in 3600 cinema's. With
the collapse of the communist regime the
Bulgarian cinema and therefore the State
financial support, cinema was reduced to a
marginal industry, hardly capable of survival. April
Mainland movie box-office receipts reach 2.7
billion Yuan, representing 29 billion visits to the
cinema. In 1999, there are only 300 million visits
to the cinema - TV destroys the movie market.
media_timeline_danwei_wo.php June 2010
By the end of the 80's, the "Moldova-film" was
producing about four fiction films annually and 25
documentaries. April
The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC)
introduced the 12 certificate. January 2009
When Croatia became independent in the 90s,
Croatian film suffers a difficult crisis. Due to wars,
the market for Croatian films shrank, most of the
theatres disappeared for good and none of
Croatian films could expect to be financially
viable without even greater support from the
state. In the period of rule of Franjo Tudman,
government avoided direct censorship, but
demanded more nationalist content, making it
less accessible not only to audiences in other
countries, but also in Croatia itself.
Croatia January 2010
In the early 1990s, the machinery of cinema,
which had been planted by the Soviet occupation
and subsidised by the state, began to crumble.
Financial support from Moscow vanished
together with ideological restraints. The immense
Russian market, which had provided Estonian
films with a smooth cycle of production and
distribution, also relinquished their ties. April
By the early 1990s, Jack Valenti's biggest
challenge in Europe was the supranational push
in favour of a continental strategy to combat
Hollywood domination. Washington feared a
'Fortress Europe' strategy in multilateral trade
negotiations led by the European Commission in
Brussels. The EC realized that European
cinema would never achieve competitive
advantages vis-à-vis Hollywood without
harnessing in the same way economies of scale
available in the domestic U.S. market. And as
long as Hollywood films dominated local cinemas
in Europe, most of the proceeds would continue
to flow back to America. The EC solution was to
encourage the pooling of resources in European
co-productions aided by subsidies and quota
restrictions. A notable Euro-production had been
The Name of the Rose - a German-French-Italian
film starring Sean Connery [that] grossed more
than $120 million worldwide. But the movie's
success was undoubtedly due to the fact that,
because it was shot in English, it enjoyed ready
access to the American market.
Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction, P. 70-
Film production peaked in 1990 when an
astonishing 950 features were made, five times
more than Hollywood.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 332
The new Mexican films made the public return to
the screen seats. In general, the Mexican cinema
experienced a happy encounter with its public.
The attendance to see Mexican films increased
considerably between 1990 and 1992. The rent
of these same films in video exceeded the
expectations of the distributors. April
Since its inception in the 1990s, the burgeoning
Nigerian movie scene has bloomed into a $286
million business annually, despite the fact that
films have minimal budgets (ranging from $10,
000 to $25,000) and sell for just a few dollars
apiece. What this industry does have is volume,
with some 300 directors churning out an average
of 2400 films annually. Most of the movies are in
English, allowing for the widest possible
crossover appeal in the multi-lingual Nigerian
d /news/2007/07/nollywood June 2007
The cinema of Nigeria grew quickly in the 1990s
and 2000s to become the second largest film
industry in the world in terms of number of annual
film production which is ahead of the United
States and behind the Indian film industries.[1]
According to Hala Gorani and Jeff Koinange
formerly of CNN, Nigeria has a US$250 million
movie industry, churning out some 200 videos for
the home video market every month.[2][3]
ia August 2010
In the 1990s film production has diminished to 10-
12 feature films per year, the number of cinema
halls and of seats has dramatically fallen and the
number of film goers went down from a peak 211
million in 1988 to 130 million in 1990 and to only
12.5 million in 1996. May
The early nineties saw a first spectacular wave of
private capital investment in film production [in
Russia], a sector that had so far had been
entirely financed by the state. There are two
principal explanations: firstly, the film industry was
one of the rare sectors authorized for private
investment. Secondly, such investment served
partly as a means of laundering illegal capital
made in the grey market. Driven initially by highly
unrealistic profit expectations on the part of
investors, investment declined dramatically in the
following years (from 26-36 million USD in 1992
to 15.5 million in 1995) as hoped-for profits failed
to materialize. Partly in reaction to this and in
response to pleas from filmmakers, a new
cinema law was passed in 1996, fixing
government allocations and a comprehensive
system of tax privileges for private investors. August 2006
The Swedish Code of Statutes SFS 1990:886
was published [on 14 August], establishing the
rules for film and video censorship under the
Examination and Control of Films and
Videograms Act. June 2008
The Law for Regulation of Video Salons, Video
Bars and Video Rentals was passed [on 24 May]
in Turkmenistan, giving the State Film Committee
(Goskino) a monopoly over all video activity in the
country, which is interpreted (by Goskino) to
include cable television. The latter operations
must be sanctioned by the local administration
and then formed as a subsidiary of Goskino run
by the private applicant. May 2008
Blockbuster adds Applause Video, Video
Express, Movie Emporium, and other chains -
stores now exceed 1,500. May 2008
It cost $85 million to produce the movie Total
Recall, $70 million to produce movie Die Hard 2,
$55 million to produce the movie Days of
Thunder, and $65 million to produce the movie
The Godfather, Part 3. June 2007
Since the establishment of the National Film
Archive and Video Centre in 1991, documentary
video production has resumed on a modest
scale, although for financial and technical
reasons filming in 16mm or 35mm is no longer
possible. The donation by the Japanese
government of professional digital cameras (4),
editing and mixing equipment in 2004-5 has
greatly enhanced the quality of the Centre's work.
s/Laos_Cultural_Profile/-929.html March
In 1991, Slovenia had 113 cinemas (33,363
seats) with 201 employees: 3 independent
houses, 41 belonging to screening organizations,
21 belonging to various cultural institutions, 25 to
various societies and clubs, and 23 others. There
were 40,000 screenings and nearly 2 million
visitors (897 per 1,000 inhabitants). This means
that every Slovene went to the cinema once that
year. April
75 percent of US homes reported to own VCRs. May 2008
Denver trial of VOD - over 1 000 titles but no
profits. April 2009
Denver viewers could order movies at home from
list of more than 1,000 titles. June 2007
Domestic US revenue from film was $7.1 billion
and foreign revenues had shot up to $6.3 billion.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 245
More than 4 billion videocassette tape rentals in
U.S. alone. April 2007
The Motion Picture Association said only 166164074f
American movies were fit for kids under 13. June 2008
Hong Kong
Even though ticket prices doubled in the 1990s,
the box office earnings of Hong Kong films fell
from US$153 million in 1992 to $72 million in
1997. In the same period the number of films
produced declined from 234 in 1993 to 40 in
1998. Many Hong Kong film makers are worried
that Hong Kong will end up as just another Third
World film generator like Taipei, Mexico City and
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
45.4 percent of Italian families have VCRs. June 2008
A Law passes to create financial incentives to
encourage Brazilian film production. As a result,
the number of films has increased dramatically.
20Brazilinema.htm June 2011
According to official statistics, 183 films were
made in Hindi, 168 in Tamil, 148 in Telegu, 78 in
Kannada, 71 in Malayalam, 57 in Bengali, 35 in
Marathi and ten in Assamese.
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 324
In Egypt Youssef Chahine (1926-2008),
filmmaker, directed “The Emigrant.” The film,
about the Old Testament figure of Joseph, was
denounced by militant Islamists and banned. March 2007
The first computer-animated film Toy Story, is
released to theaters.
a/history-animated-films.htm January 2011
The number of G-rated films released by US
studios increased by 160between 1994 and
Harper's Index
Argentine filmmakers have placed their hopes on
the new Act, passed in 1995, forcing video and
television to make financial contributions to
Argentine movies. March
Ronnie Screwvala, founder of India's UTV
software, started his UTV film studio. June 2007
DVD as an industry standard was announced in
November 1995 and backed by major players in
the CE, IT and movie industry. The first players
appeared in Japan in November, 1996, followed
by U.S. players in March, 1997.
dvd.htm February 2011
22 Sep 1995
Showgirls, a film about strippers, is the first big-
budget, major studio film to be released with an
NC-17 certificate.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 781
25 Sep 1995
Forbes magazine lists Steven Spielberg, with
earning for 1994 estimated at $285 million, as
the world's highest-paid entertainer.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 783
EDN started in September 1996 as a
documentary organisation for filmmakers
producers, production companies, distributors,
associations, film institutions & boards,
universities, festivals, broadcasters and film &
television agencies. May 2011
In 1996, the U.S. accounted for 70 percent of the
film market in the European Union (EU), up from
56 percent in 1987. And it holds over half of the
film market in Japan.
mary_0286-27233757_ITM February 2011
The Russian [film] distribution sector gives a
confusing image marked by instability and
fluctuation. Among the 40 to 60 active film
distribution companies only 18 distributed at
least five titles in one of the years 1996 to 2000.
The four largest distributors base their activity on
long-term contracts with world distribution
leaders. Releases of American films are
predominant (an average of 79 releases per year
in 1996-2000), followed by Russian films (an
average of 38 films/year) and French films (11
films/year). However the position of domestically
produced features is by far weaker than these
figures might imply. Apart from a few Russian
blockbusters, such as "The Barber of Siberia" or
"Brother 2", Russian films hardly ever make it into
the modern theatres that to a large extent decide
on the box-office success of any film released in
Russia. An overwhelming majority of Russian
producers are still forced to distribute their films
independently. June 2007
US Congress renews the National Film
Preservation Act for seven more years and
created a private sector charitable National Film
Preservation Foundation to increase funding for
film preservation. May 2008
25 Nov 1996
The European Court of Human Rights upheld the
British Board of Film Classification's decision to
ban Visions of Ecstasy, about St Teresa of Ávila,
on the grounds of blasphemy. March 2008
Canadian film and video productions have set
new records for revenue in foreign markets. But
American movies still dominate on the domestic
front. Statistics Canada says Canadian
distributors had export revenues in 1997-98
surpassing the $100 million mark for the first
time. That's more than three times what they were
a decade ago. May 2008
The German films “23” and “Knockin' on
Heaven's Door” were produced by Buena Vista
Int'l., a division of Walt Disney Co. May 2008
Globally, over 3,200 feature films were made in
1997, slightly up on the previous year but down
on a recent high of 4,564 films produced in 1990. May 2008
Film Titanic costs $300 million to make and
market. May 2008
Twentieth Century Fox, sensing a trend, licensed
Magnetic Video to sell its films on videocassette.
Mast, Short, P. 597
14 Dec 1997
It was reported that Bombay film studios churn
out 900 features a year in Hindi and other Indian
languages at an average cost of $2.24 million.
[Total = $2.016 Billion] August 2008
Through a series of decisions, starting in June
1998, the European Commission had over a
period of some 20 months gradually been putting
in place a de facto cap on admissible public
support for film production. Using competition
policy arguments and evaluation criteria, the
Commission was of the opinion that 50 percent
public funds was the absolute maximum allowed
for supporting film production in member states. August 2007
Despite the fact the Portuguese cinema is hardly
known across its borders, only France on
occasion screens a Portuguese feature film, the
industry is well organized. Instituto do Cinema,
Audiovisual e Multimédia (ICAM) is an
organization created in December 1998 to
contribute towards the definition of public policies
and to support the cinema, audiovisual and
multimedia sectors under the wings of the
Ministry of Culture. May
About 800 drive-in theaters still remain open in
the United States. August
Jan 1998
The Iranian Documentary Filmmakers
Association (IRDFA) is the first directors' guild in
Iran to focus on documentary filmmakers. It was
founded in January 1998 within the Iranian
"House of Cinema" establishment and alongside
other cinema guilds. May
05 Dec 1998
In South Korea the first Japanese film since 1945
was screened. "Hana Bi" (Fireworks) was the
first film shown since a ban on Japanese work
was lifted in Oct. August 2006
$35,000 Blair Witch Project shows potential of
low cost video production. June 2007
The Blair Witch Project, a faux vérité
documentary, grossed over $100 million in the
US alone. June 2007
According to Statistics Canada, foreign movies
accounted for 98 per cent of the distribution
revenue in Canada. Most of that money went
south of the border. August 2006
Bye Bye Africa is the first feature film from Chad.
Director Mahamat-Saleh Haroun presents a
"documentary fiction", a story about making a
documentary. The film addresses the difficulties
in making and distributing or even visit a film in
Chad and , at the same time, shows the
advantages and possibilities of video technology.
Bye Bye Africa won several prizes (Venise 99,
Zanzibar 2000, M-Net All African Awards 2000). April 2011
Morocco made a strong start to the new
millennium, with six features in 2000 alone, three
by new directors. This meant that for the first time
its number of directors who had completed a
feature film (49) exceeded that of Algeria (46),
though the number of feature films overall was still
slightly smaller (102 to 107). April
Moscow and St. Petersburg played a key role for
[film] distribution in Russia, due to their vast
population, comparatively high-income levels and
the availability of "modern" theatres. Though
these two cities only accounted for 15.4 percent
of all admissions in 2000, they generated 53
percent of total box-office revenues, thanks to a
significantly higher average ticket price. June 2008
Extremely rapid diffusion: 8512652636f U.S.
households own VCRs. August
Cote d'Ivoire
Despite the promising establishment of the
government funds in assistance to
cinematographic creation (FACC) delivering
equipment with high tech material at a cost of a
billion FCFA, the film industry has declined in the
late nineties mainly due to the threat of civil war
turmoil which became apparent in 2001.
April 2011
The film Titanic made almost US$2 billion in
worldwide sales as of 2001-making it the biggest-
grossing movie of all time. August
Thanks in part to the creation of the Slovenian
Film Fund in 1995, Slovenian cinema has
become increasingly popular within its own
market, catching the attention of a new domestic
audience as well as attracting filmgoers and
awards abroad. In 2001, April
Nowhere is this influence [of the foreign market
influence on movie content] more evident than in
the film industry. In the U.S. and Canada, movies
rated "G" (General) and "PG" (Parental
Guidance) consistently brought in more revenues
than R-rated films. Yet the number of G and PG
films has dropped in recent years, and the
number of restricted films has risen. Two-thirds of
Hollywood films in 2001 were rated "R." Film
producers are unequivocal about why this is so:
the foreign market likes action films. August
The U.S. domestic box office alone hit US$9
billion-a 75 per cent increase from 1991-and
there are huge revenues from home video/DVD
sales, rentals and spin-off merchandise. August
14 Mar 2001
In his Budget speech, the Chancellor of the
Exchequer announced that the tax breaks for
British film production will be extended for three
more years. June 2008
In 2002 Coutono, the capital of Benin hosted the
Festival international de Cinéma et de Télévision
pour l'Enfance et la Jeunesse (FIFECO). April
DVD [player] sales pass VCR sales; 40+ million
U.S. homes have DVD. January
Nearly 21,000 DVD titles in circulation, 7,000
introduced this year. January
06 Sep 2002
In India the film "Ek Chhoti Si Love Story" (A
Short Love Story) was released across India
despite a court order and attacks on some
theatres, has kicked up a controversy over its
explicit sexual content. March 2007
All features from Chad are co-productions in
collaboration with French funds or with
filmmakers from surrounding countries. A recent
example is the 85 minute long film Abouna by
Mahamat-Saleh Haroun (2003). April 2011
The German film “Goodbye Lenin,” directed by
Wolfgang Becker, became a big hit grossing $80
million. May 2008
Estimated one million camcorders worldwide. January
It is estimated that the average global production
of feature films per annum is just short of 4,000
Chapman, Cinemas of the World, P. 33
For the first time, more DVDs than videotapes
are rented in the US. July 2007
Apr 2003
Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Government in April 2003
introduced a Film Guarantee Fund as an
incentive to local banks to become involved in the
motion picture industry. The guarantee operates
to secure a percentage of monies loaned by
banks to film production companies. The Fund
has received a mixed reception from industry
participants, and less than enthusiastic reception
from financial institutions who perceive
investment in local films as high risk ventures with
little collateral. Film guarantee legal documents
commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in
late April 2003 are based on Canadian
documents, which have limited relevance to the
local industry.
ie#History August 2010
In 2004 the government has granted the Afghan
Films organization USD500.000 for the film
industry. Initial support has been provided to
Afghan Films to revitalize the mobile cinema
facilities and for the digitalisation of film archives
stored at the Main Public Library.
April 2011
An Ontario Superior Court ruled that the Ontario
classification board was violating charter rights
by censoring or banning movies. The Ontario
judge has given the provincial government 12
months to amend its Theatres Act to remove the
board's ability to censor or ban films. Although
the Ontario board has lost the power to ban
movies, it can still rate them. 21 June 2004
Apr 2004
The Swiss government passed a law prohibiting
the release of films on video before or during
their theatrical run. January 2008
Aug 2004
Sandor Demjan and Andrew Vajna planned to
construct the world's largest movie studio in
Etyek, Hungary. August 2006
1909 cinema screens in Australia. May 2008
Austrian films' share of the domestic box-office is
one of the lowest in Europe, with only about 3
percent of cinema admissions going to domestic
productions. Every year the annual top ten films
at the Austrian box-office are usually all
Austria January 2008
Admissions to French films outside France
reached 73.6m, exceeding admissions in the
domestic market (64.8m) for the first time. February 2008
Tax credits equal to 20 per cent of expenditure
on salaries of technicians and production crews,
equipment, film stock, post-production and
certain other costs are allowed under a change to
French tax laws. To qualify production must take
place in France and is subject to a maximum of
€1m for films or €1,150 per minute for other
audio-visual works. February 2008
Hong Kong
Hong Kong produced 57 films in 2005 and 51 in
2006. Around 90 films were made in 2000. There
were only 46 theaters in Hong Kong in the mid
2000s a third a number as the early 1990s.
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
The Kenya Film Commission (KFC) was
established by the Kenyan government in 2005.
However, it only came into full function in mid-
2006. The Kenya Film Commission was formed
with the aim of promoting the Kenyan film industry
locally as well as internationally. For the
international community looking to film in Kenya
the Commission offers detailed information on
locations; offer liaison services on behalf of the
government; advice on film licensing and
immigration; as well as facilitate the filming
process for film makers.
mmission May 2011
Film was predominantly characterized by PG-13
films, which placed 14 of their type in the top 25
money-makers. There were only two G-rated
films and three R-rated films in the top 25 of
2005. The number of PG-13 films has
outnumbered the number of PG films ever since
the mid-1990s. Many of these PG-13 films would
have been rated R in as little as five years earlier,
due to what has been termed 'ratings creep'. May 2007
There was a significant commercial trend in the
film industry to release 'un-rated' versions of R-
rated and PG 13-rated films on DVD and
videocassette, often with additional racy content
that would have undoubtedly changed the original
MPAA ratings of these films. January 2008
Wedding Crashers, which earned over $209
million, surpassed there's something About Mary
(1998) as the top R-rated comedy in two
decades. January 2008
01 Jan 2005
Norway introduced VAT (value added tax) of
seven per cent on cinema tickets. May 2008
14 Jul 2005
Government Regulation number 39 established a
system for granting state aid to Romanian film
production. From the beginning of August all
advertisers or their agencies have to pay three
per cent of their television advertising spent to
the National Cinematographic Centre (CNC).
Separately licensed cable channel operators
must pay one per cent of monthly income in
addition to the three per cent advertising levy;
video sales and rental companies pay two per
cent of revenue. Interest-free loans from the CNC
may provide up to 50 per cent of a film's budget
(80 per cent in the case of 'expensive small
budget' films) and must be repaid within seven
years. Up to 20 per cent of the budget may be
spent in EU member states. Public broadcasters
must include promotions for Romanian film
productions. June 2007
Quebec feature films like The Barbarian
Invasions and C.R.A.Z.Y. have achieved the kind
of commercial success Ottawa says it wants for
Canadian films [but] federal funding to Quebec
and French film has remained steady at $22
million a year, [Quebec] filmmakers say. Only half
of that amount is allocated to film production, with
the other half going to marketing and promotion.
Telefilm distributes $93 million annually through
its Canada Feature Film Fund, with two-thirds of
the allotment going to English projects outside
Quebec. 22 June 2006
Director Bryan Singer's and Warner's Superman
Returns (2006) became the world's first live-
action Hollywood feature with selected
sequences (about 20 minutes) converted from
2D to IMAX 3D. With a $260M budget, it became
one of the biggest budgeted flops despite
positive reviews and audience reaction. Part of
the blockbuster's massive budget was because
of the many red-lighted Superman Returns
projects with many different scripts, directors and
stars (Kevin Smith, Nicolas Cage), etc. January 2008
Disney buys Pixar for US$7.4bn. January 2011
Number of drive-in theaters rises to 658. January
Jan 2006
Memoirs of a Geisha, starring Chinese actress
Zhang Ziyi who plays a Japanese Geisha,
triggers a hyper nationalist backlash on the
blogosphere. Sensitive to overly enthusiastic anti-
Japanese sentiment, Beijing bans the movie in
January demonstrating the increasing influence of
Chinese bloggers and discussion forums.
timeline_danwei_wo.php August 2010
The Burundi Film Center (BFC) was launched as
a non-profit media development project in the
summer of 2007 under a mandate to "Inspire.
Educate. Entertain." The first five short films
created by our students are currently circulating
festivals around the world and all over the nation
of Burundi.
html March 2011
In 2007, the top Chinese films were Hong Kong
co-productions Curse of the Golden Flower and
The Banquet. In Hong Kong seven of the top ten
films were co-productions with the mainland.
itemid=244&catid=7&subcatid=42 February
The US box office is not alone in taking hits to its
theater attendance. In a report released on
February 11 2008, movie theater attendance in
France and the European Union dipped 2.2 per
cent last year, with 910 million total tickets sold,
compared with 931 million in 2006.
slide-in-2007-232.html December 2010
23 Aug 2007
The Montreal World Film Festival, which endured
a near-death experience two years ago when key
government subsidies were suspended, kicked
off its 31st edition with a new lease on life
attracting more than 300 spectators to its free
program. August 2008
The Malta Film Fund was established in 2008 to
promote and foster an environment in which the
Maltese audiovisual industry can develop and
grow by apportioning an amount of funding for
development and production of audiovisual
projects and to encourage training and
networking amongst audiovisual professionals.
May 2012
Pakistan has banned an Indian-made comedy
about Osama bin Laden for fear the movie could
spark terrorist attacks, officials said Wednesday.
The film Tere Bin Laden, is about a Pakistani
journalist who is desperate to get a visa to the
U.S. and pretends to score an interview with the
elusive al-Qaeda chief after finding a lookalike.
Though a Bollywood film, it is unusual because it
stars a Pakistani actor, Ali Zafar.
pakistan.html#ixzz0tfH5PST9 October 2007
30 Aug 2010
Disney announced that Toy Story 3 has recently
crossed the $1 billion mark in gross international
revenue. That makes the sequel the first
animated film to reach that milestone.
global-revenue/7931 January 2011
Film Timeline
Created with Timeline Maker Professional. Produced on 26 May 2012.