Start Date
Gutenberg prints a Bible in Mainz, Germany
using movable type. Local officials, fearing the
spread of dissent and heresy, impose
restrictions. August 2006
Henry VII imposes prior restraint in England in
order to prevent "forged tydings and tales." October 2006
Frankfurt and Mainz establish secular censorship
boards to supplement the church board. October 2006
During Brazil's colonial period under Portuguese
rule (1500-1822), the printing of books and
periodicals was strictly forbidden, and any
attempts to establish a free press were crushed
because reading and printed material were seen
as threats to the Portuguese Government.
nagement/viewpoints/brazil.htm June 2011
In Germany the legal position of the newe
Zeitungen was clearer than that of their
counterparts elsewhere: the Holy Roman Empire
had brought the printing press under control as
part of the legal machinery set up by the Edict of
Smith, Newspaper, P. 23
The power of English printers was reinforced a
half century later when Henry VIII in 1523, 1529,
and 1534 imposed increasingly strict regulations
on foreign craftsmen and finally prohibited the
free importation of books.
June 2008
In England, the Company of Stationers received
a charter from the crown in 1557 that conferred
on it's members the exclusive right to own a
press. Since the members of the company had to
be freemen of London, this provision effectively
kept printing centralized in the capital, an
arrangement preferred by the government
because it facilitated censorship.
Starr, Creation of the Media, P. 28
The Stationer's Company in England is granted a
monopoly on publishing by Royal Degree. September 2006
The original version of Shakespeare's Richard II
contained a scene in which the king was
deposed from his throne. Queen Elizabeth I was
so angry that she ordered the scene removed
from all copies of the play.
November 2006
Only 23 master printers and 55 presses are
certified in the Kingdom. October 2006
Act preventing abuses in printing seditious,
unreasonable, and unlicensed pamphlets and for
regulating printing and presses. October 2006
All theatres in England are closed by order of the
Beckett, Story, P. 327
London's Globe theater closed as the Puritan-
controlled British Parliament suppressed
theaters and other forms of popular
entertainment. June 2007
John Milton publishes the Areopagitica three
years after the demise of the Star Chamber and
in reaction to act of 1642. August 2006
The powerful bureaucratic system of pre-
censorship practiced in late Medieval Europe,
was the target for John Milton (1608-1674) in his
much disputed speech "Areopagitica" to the
Parliament of England in 1644, vigorously
opposing the Licensing Act passed by
Parliament in 1643. In Milton's noble plea for
freedom of the press, he also quoted Euripides,
adding the weight of the ancient struggle for free
expression to his own arguments. Milton's strong
advocacy in defense of free expression
contributed to the final lapse of the Licensing Act
in Britain in 1694. Milton's "Areopagitica" also
became one of the most quoted sources of
argument for freedom of expression, and
remains today a true beacon of enlightenment. July 2007
English Parliament declares that censorship is
for the public good. August
The British Parliament approved the Licensing of
the Press Act, which censored "seditious,
treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and
Pamphlets." It failed renewal in 1695 and was
repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863. June 2007
The Licensing Act of 1662 was ruthlessly
enforced in Britain until after the Great Plague of
1664-65. May 2007
The burning of the entire collection of the
University of Oxford library in 1683 was on direct
orders from the king. August
The Licensing Act in England lapsed in 1694. July 2007
The "Liberty of Unlicensed Printing" removes
government control [in Britain] from the press
(freedom of the press). [Note: The British
Parliament voted not to renew the 1662
Licensing of the Press Act. - SM] January 2007
The Comediens Italiens were expelled from Paris
for indiscretion in their opera parodies. The fair
theaters took up where they left off with the use of
vaudevilles and comedia dell'arte characters. January 2007
Voltaire (1694-1778), French writer, was
imprisoned in the Bastille for his lampoons of the
Regency. [1717-1718] June 2007
Paris, France, had 380 coffee houses by this
time. Due to strict curbs on the press handwritten
newsletters were exchanged there and
government spies were common. June 2007
James Franklin jailed after publishing New
England Courant; Brother Ben takes over. June 2007
07 Feb 1752
Publication sale and distribution of the 1st 2
volumes of the Encyclopedie were summarily
forbidden by order of King Louis XV. Chretien de
Malesherbes the French director of publications
managed to broker a compromise that included
a layer of censorship and a 3rd volume was
published by the end of 1753. May 2011
07 Feb 1752
Publication, sale and distribution of the first and
second volumes of the Encyclopedie were
summarily forbidden by order of King Louis XV.
Chretien de Malesherbes, the French director of
publications, managed to broker a compromise
that included a layer of censorship and a third
volume was published by the end of 1753. August 2006
03 Sep 1759
Pope Clement XIII officially placed the French
Encyclopedie on the Vatican's Index of
Prohibited Books. April 2007
Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his didactic
novel "Emile," which spelled out his idea of his
"natural system," and his work of political
philosophy "The Social Contract." The books
were banned in France and he was forced to
leave. October 2006
29 May 1765
Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act before
Virginia's House of Burgesses. It was during this
speech that Henry supposedly responded to
cries of Treason! by declaring, If this be treason,
make the most of it, according to an 1817
biography of Henry by William Wirt, who wrote
that he had confirmed the quote with former
President Thomas Jefferson. May 2011
Christian VII had abolished censorship in 1771 in
Denmark, but made important exceptions which
included all periodical publications.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
In the United Provinces newspapers still needed
an official privilege and even then they were
forbidden, in the very birthplace of the periodical
press, to discuss local politics; the great freedom
of the Dutch press was in fact restricted to the
coverage of the internal affairs of other countries.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
Sweden passed a law guaranteeing press
freedom but its absolutist monarch ignored the
statute for all practical purposes.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
Freedom of the press was introduced in France. April 2008
In Germany, the Carlsbad decrees of 1819 left
the press under lock and key.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
Metternich proposes centralization of the book
trade under government control to "prevent the
unlimited power of the book sellers who direct
German public opinion." Carlsburg, Bohemia
begins policy of "preventive censor-ship" of
political pamphlets. May 2007
By 1819, England was subjected to the
repressions of the Six Acts.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
05 Jul 1832
The German government began curtailing
freedom of the press after German Democrats
advocated a revolt against Austrian rule. August 2006
Nikolai V. Gogol (1809-1852), Ukrainian-born
Russian writer, published his novel “Dead Souls.”
It appeared in Moscow under the title, imposed
by the censorship, of “The Adventures of
Chichikov.” September 2006
01 Oct 1856
The first instalment of Gustav Flaubert's novel
Madame Bovary (Emma Bovary) appeared in the
Revue de Paris after the publisher refused to
print a passage in which the character Emma
has a tryst in the back seat of a carriage. It was
later considered as the first novel of a liberated
woman in modern literature. September 2006
With the passage of the Obscene Publications
Act 1857 in the UK, there followed many criminal
prosecutions and seizures of books.
07 Feb 1857
A French court acquitted author Gustave Flaubert
of obscenity for his serialized novel "Madame
Bovary." November 2009
After adult novels were mailed to Civil War troops,
Congress voted an obscenity law. July 2007
18 Feb 1884
Police seized all copies of Tolstoy's "What I
Believe In." October 2006
08 Oct 1900
Maximilian Harden was sentenced to six months
in prison for publishing an article critical of the
German Kaiser. January 2007
London police close down the performance of the
new play by George Bernard Shaw. Mrs
Warren's Profession depicts prostitution from
nowhere near high moral ground, i.e. from the
side of the woman.
February 2011
03 Jan 1911
The New York World waged effective battles in
an editorial page which ws said to owe its power
in part to Pulitzer's blindness since it was
necessary to have all editorial read to him. A libel
suit by President Roosevelt in reply to its attacks
regarding the Panama Canal brought a Supreme
Court decision on 3 January 1911, which
vindicated the World and was regarded as 'the
most sweeping victory won for freedom of
speech and of the press.'
Innis, Bias, P. 182
Trading with the Enemy Act authorizes
censorship of all communications moving in or
out of the U.S. and provides that translations of
newspaper or magazine articles published in
foreign languages can be demanded by the Post
Office. October 2006
Effort by black journalists fails to cancel radio
program Amos 'n' Andy. Note: They were
offended because the two principal characters
were portrayed as being unintelligent. January
In the 1992 Butler decision, the Supreme Court
ruled that the judge is not supposed to use his or
her own moral standards to decide on obscenity
cases, Rather, the judge is supposed to rule on
the basis of what he or she believes are the
community standards of tolerance.
Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada, P. 187
Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer, banned in U.S.,
is published in Paris. January
07 Aug 1934
The U.S. Court of Appeals upheld a lower court
ruling striking down the government's attempt to
ban the controversial James Joyce novel
Ulysses. March 2007
The U.S. Treasury Department upheld a
Commissioner of Customs decision to prohibit
the import of the notorious Czechoslovakian film
Ecstasy (1933) (AKA Extase) with Hedwig
Kiesler (Hedy Lamarr), because it contained
nudity and sexual situations (intercourse and
simulated orgasm). This marked the first time
customs laws were used to prevent a film from
entering the US. February 2007
12 Apr 1935
Germany prohibited the publishing of "not-Aryan"
writers. March 2007
First ACLU case regarding LGBT rights.
Defense of “The Children’s Hour” by Lillian
Hellman against censorship for lesbian content.
meline omplete-Updated.pdf
January 2011
One of the actions by the Social Credit
Government that attracted international attention
was the legislation to allow for censorship, the
[Alberta] Accurate News and Information Bill of
1937. The legislation was never given assent by
the lieutenant-governor. The bill was intended to
muzzle the newspapers in the province for their
criticism of government.
Adria, Technology, P. 117
Television broadcasting suspended for defense
reasons. December
Henry Miller's Tropic of Capricorn published in
Paris banned in U.S. as obscene. July 2008
10 Mar 1940
Mikhail Bulgakov (b.1891), Russian author, died
in Moscow. His novel “The Master and Margarita,
” which satirized life under Stalin, was written
between 1928 and the author's death. It was not
published until 1966-67 in the Russian journal
Moskva, with some 60 pages cut. March 2007
06 Sep 1945
George Weller (d.2002), a Chicago Daily News
journalist, wrote his first story on the bombing of
Nagasaki. Posing as a US Army colonel Weller
had slipped into Nagasaki in early September.
His stories infuriated MacArthur so much he
personally ordered that they be quashed, and the
originals were never returned. Carbon copies of
his stories, running to about 25,000 words on 75
typed pages, along with more than two dozen
photos, were discovered by his son, Anthony, in
2004 at Weller's apartment in Rome, Italy. In
2005 the national Mainichi newspaper began
serializing the stories and photographs for the
first time since they were rejected by US military
censors. January 2007
17 Sep 1951
Boston Publishing firm of Little, Brown &
Company issues a four--page dential of charges
that the company has become a communist front
publishing house.
Merritt, The Fifties
Humorous periodicals characteristic of free
societies - humor a desire for breaking rigidities
and keeping society flexible - New Yorker.
Innis, Idea File, 5-81 (1952)
U.S. Senate committee holds hearings on
societal effects of televised violence. March
26 Feb 1954
Michigan Representative Ruth Thompson (R)
introduced legislation to ban mailing "obscene,
lewd, lascivious or filthy" phonograph (rock and
roll records). March 2007
After World War II, Thai politics went into a dark
age when Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat had
political power (1958-1963) and restricted press
freedom. There were orders to forbid the
publication of certain literary works and to close
many newspapers. Authors of social criticism
were arrested and imprisoned. Therefore, literary
works during this period were written as a form of
social escape; love between a prince and a
commoner and novels about the first wife and the
mistress were typical themes.
p March 2011
18 Apr 1958
Federal District Court in Washington dismisses
WWII treason charges against poet Ezra Pound
after psychiatrists conclude that he will never be
mentally competent to stand trial.
Merritt, The Fifties
29 Jun 1959
US Supreme Court rules unanimously that a NY
State ban on exhibition of the film Lady
Chatterly's Lover violates the first amendment's
guarantee of freedom to advocate ideas.
Merritt, The Fifties
25 Mar 1960
A US court of appeals in New York rules that D.H.
Lawrence's Lady Chatterly's Lover is not
obscene and cannot be barred form the mails.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
01 Jun 1960
National Council of Churches releases a report
assailing the pathological preoccupation with sex
and violence in current films and TV.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
29 Jul 1960
FCC rejects proposals for radio and TV
censorship on the grounds that media expression
is protected by the First Amendment.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
02 Nov 1960
A London jury rules that D. H. Lawrence's Lady
Chatterly's Lover is not obscene in the first major
test of Britain's new obscene publications law.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
30 Jun 1962
Vatican formally censures The Phenomenon of
Man a book by the late French Jesuit
paleontologist Father Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
in which he sought to reconcile catholic dogma
with scientific discoveries relating to human
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
In New York Times v. Sullivan the Supreme Court
rules that a public official may win a libel lawsuit
only by proving that the story was false and that it
was published with "actual malice." [Note: This
places much more of a burden on the public
official claiming libel. - SM] May 2008
27 Feb 1964
The Appellate Division of the NY Supreme Court,
in a 3-2 decision, adjudges John Cleland's 1749
novel Fanny Hill 'obscene' and enjoins GP
Putnam's Sons from publishing it.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
22 Jun 1964
In four separate cases the Supreme Court rules
against local government censorship of allegedly
obscene books and movies.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
It is estimated that 2000 books were banned in
Indonesia between 1965 and 1995.
Harper's Index
08 Feb 1966
Vatican says that the office responsible for the
censorship of books has been abolished.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
08 Aug 1966
South Africa
South African Broadcasting banned the Beatles
for Lennon's anti-Jesus remark. March 2007
When the editors of an underground periodical,
Oz, were convicted in 1971 for violating postal
laws, an appeal court held that a periodical need
not be judged as a whole, an apparent reversal of
the 1959 act [in the UK]. March 2007
The U.S. government attempts to prevent the
publication of the Pentagon Papers by the New
York Times by invoking national security. The
Supreme Court vacated its stay and earlier court
orders 15 days later. May 2008
In Gertz v. Welch, Inc., the Supreme Court
narrows the Sullivan decision so that it provides
full protection only for stories dealing with public
officials. In Miami Herald v. Tornillo the Court
rules unanimously that equal space and
mandatory response laws are a clear violation of
the First Amendment when applied to the print
media. January 2007
In Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia
Citizens Consumer Council, the Court extended
First Amendment protection to commercial
speech. May 2008
Toronto police raid the offices of The Body Politic
Canada's leading gay newspaper, seizing
records manuscripts and subscription lists. The
newspaper is charged with using the mail service
to distribute indecent material. After a long and
costly legal battle, the paper is acquitted but its
financial problems force it to cease publication in
January 2011
The U.S. government obtains a restraining order,
stopping Progressive magazine from publishing
an article on how to build a hydrogen bomb. The
magazine says that it obtained it material from
public sources and appeals to the courts. The
government withdraws its case when another
magazine publishes nearly identical information
to Progressive's. May 2008
In Richmond Newspapers v. Virginia, the Court
rules that the First Amendment gives a right to
gather news about government unless said
government can provide an "overriding reason"
to bar the press. May 2008
22 Mar 1980
On the night of March 22 1980, in La Paz, Luiz
Espinal, the most important film critic in Bolivia
and the editor of the political weekly Aqui (Here),
was kidnapped, tortured for hours, and finally
killed. His body was abandoned outside the city,
where a peasant found it the dawn of the
following day.
JC26folder/BolivCriticKilled.html July 2011
07 Apr 1980
Rebel French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre
openly defies the Vatican by celebrating a
forbidden 16th Century Latin mass on Easter
Monday in Italy. Lefebvre celebrates the outlawed
Latin, or Tridentine, mass in a deconsecrated
Venetian church.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
27 Mar 1981
A Los Angeles Superior Court Jury rules that
actress Carol Burnett had been libelled by the
National Enquirer in a 1976 gossip column and
orders the Florida-based publication to pay her
$1.6 million in damages.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
14 Feb 1982
The incidence of book censorship in public
school classrooms and libraries is rising
nationwide according to a survey by the Los
Angeles Times. The American Library
Association's office of Intellectual Freedom
recorded between 900 and 1,000 incidents of
censorship in 1981.
Metzer and Aronson, The Eighties
President Marcos of the Philippines issued a
decree on 5 October to replace the Board of
Review for Motion Pictures and Television
(BRMPT) with the Movie and Television Review
and Classification Board (MTRCB) as the
nation's censorship authority. June 2008
Sep 1989
Werner Aspenstrom (1919-1997), Swedish poet,
resigned from the Nobel Academy for literature,
along with novelists Kerstin Ekman and Lars
Gyllensten, for the academy's weak response to
the Salmon Rushdie controversy. February 2008
25 Sep 1994
Swiss voters approved a ban on racist
propaganda. The law became effective Jan 1,
1995. March 2007
15 Jun 1995
The Senate approves 81-18 legislation that will
ease restrictions on TV and radio broadcasts
and will outlaw the distribution of 'indecent'
material over the on-line services and the
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 747
Supreme Court throws out Communication
Decency Act. March
The Sana'a Declaration of 1996 is the only
international document on freedom for the Arab
media. It was adopted by the General
Conference of UNESCO at its 29th Session in
Paris in 1997 March 2011
Murdoch orders HarperCollins [which he owned
at the time] to squash the memoirs of Chris
Patten, Hong Kong's last governor and vocal
critic of the Communist China government. February 2008
Jun 1998
In National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, the
Supreme Court rules, 8-1, that the federal
government is allowed to consider standards of
decency when awarding federal arts grants.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 1083
Supreme Court ends the Personal Attack Rule,
last vestige of Fairness Doctrine. August
Another example of an investigation that ran
counter to the 'injection theory' is Herta Herzog's
(1941) classical study of American women's
relations to radio soap operas, still one of the
most interesting contributions in the field. Instead
of questionnaires with predetermined answer
choices, Herzog used a more flexible form of
interview with so-called 'open' questions where
those who are being studied are, as much as
possible, allowed to speak for themselves. With
such methods it becomes clearer that the use of
media takes place in the many-faceted lives of
concrete human beings in ways that make simple
conclusions about 'effects' considerably more
difficult to formulate."
Gripsrud, Understanding, P. 48-49 (2002)
Egypt expelled Amr Khaled, a Muslim minister,
for attracting large crowds at Cairo mosques.
Khaled moved to the US and beamed TV
programs to Egypt and the rest of the Arab world.
His broadcast aired on Iqra, a Saudi-owned
religious satellite channel and he spoke out
against terrorism and despair. March 2007
U.S. Supreme Court says 1996 Child
Pornography Act is unconstitutional. April 2007
Pre-publication press censorship was abolished
in 2002, but self-censorship is widespread.
pacific/country_profiles/1238242.stm July
01 Dec 2002
Prof. Saburo Ienaga, Japanese historian, died at
age 89. He had led battles against the
government screening of textbooks. [Note:
textbooks were screened to remove references
to certain Japanese acts during WWII. - SM] June 2009
20 Dec 2002
Canada's Supreme Court ruled that the book
"One Dad, Two Dads, Brown Dad, Blue Dads"
and others with gay themes cannot be banned
from kindergarten classrooms of a Canadian
school on religious grounds. June 2009
16 Jan 2004
A Canadian regulator ruled that a song lauding
the joys of an "enormous penis" is not obscene
because the object of the lyric's affection isn't
necessarily sexual. March 2007
25 May 2005
In Italy a judge ordered best-selling author Oriana
Fallaci to face trial on charges of defaming Islam
in her recent book "The Strength of Reason."
Fallaci, who is in her 70s, said she is accused of
violating an Italian law that prohibits "outrage to
religion." March 2007
22 Oct 2005
In Afghanistan Ali Mohaqiq Nasab was convicted
after his magazine Haqooq-i-Zan, or Women's
Rights, published a series of articles about Islam.
One challenged a belief that Muslims who convert
to other religions should be stoned to death, as
sanctioned by some interpretations of Islamic
Shariah law, while another criticized the practice
of punishing adultery with 100 lashes. On Oct 24
the UN criticized his two-year jail sentence. June 2009
23 Nov 2005
Poland's two leading newspapers blacked out
large sections of their front pages in an eye-
catching protest against media repression in
neighboring Belarus. October 2006
Armed police, acting on government orders,
raided the offices and presses of the Standard
group, one of Kenya's leading media companies.
BBC 2006
Russia shuts down two newspapers that reprint
ironic cartoons about the Islamic prophet
Mohammed. October 2006
14 Apr 2006
Five publishers, all members of Egypt's
opposition Muslim Brotherhood, were detained
as they prepared to publish material criticizing
Egypt's emergency law. August 2006
18 Jul 2006
The Afghan government announced plans to re-
establish a Vice and Virtues Ministry, but it
assured the public the office would not resemble
the Taliban version that became a symbol of the
brutal regime toppled by US forces in 2001. August 2009
08 Jan 2007
In Finland 2 newspaper editors were fined for
publishing a letter that said violence against
Jews was justified and that the Holocaust was
acceptable. August 2009
01 Feb 2007
A Lebanese publisher said the Egyptian
government had censored several Egyptian and
foreign titles at its annual book fair, including the
classic novel "Zorba the Greek" as well as books
by Czech author Milan Kundera. May 2008
15 Feb 2007
In Germany Ernst Zundel (b.1939), a far-right
activist, was convicted of incitement and
sentenced to the maximum five years in prison
for anti-Semitic activities, including contributing
to a Web site dedicated to Holocaust denial. May 2008
12 Apr 2007
Mexican President Felipe Calderon signed a law
eliminating prison sentences for libel or
defamation, drawing praise from media
watchdog groups. august 2008
30 May 2007
Moroccans were able to access the video
sharing Web site YouTube for the first time since
access was blocked last week. July 2008
Jun 2007
President Musharraf extends media controls to
include the internet and mobile phones amid a
growing challenge to his rule.
BBC May 2008
07 Aug 2007
Ahmed Benchemsi, the publisher of two
Moroccan weeklies charged with showing
disrespect to the monarchy, defended himself,
reserving the right to criticize his country's
political system. A day earlier magistrates in
Casablanca charged Benchemsi, the publisher
of the Nishan and TelQuel weeklies, and ordered
him to stand trial. June 2008
10 Sep 2007
Indonesia's Supreme Court ordered Time
magazine to pay $106 million in damages for
defaming former Indonesian dictator Suharto by
alleging in a May 1999 story that his family
amassed billions of dollars during his 32-year
rule. Lower courts had earlier ruled in Time's
favor. June 2009
17 Sep 2007
Lars Vilks, a Swedish cartoonist who depicted
Islam's Prophet Muhammad with the body of a
dog, said that police have taken him to a secret
location and told him he cannot return home
following a death threat from al-Qaida in Iraq. June 2009
02 Apr 2008
Newspapers reported that Egypt has ordered the
seizure of the March 25 special edition of the
German news magazine Der Spiegel after it was
deemed to be insulting to Islam and the Prophet
Mohammed. June 2010
12 May 2008
The Arab Network for Human Rights Information
(ANHRI) said that an Egyptian government-
owned Internet service provider on May 4
blocked the Egyptian Movement for Change -
Kefaya website, in the latest crackdown on the
country's cyber dissidents. June 2010
18 May 2008
Sayed Parwez Kambakhsh (24), an Afghan
journalism student sentenced to death for
insulting Islam, denied the charges before an
appeals court, saying he only confessed to
questioning the religion's treatment of women
because he was tortured. In 2008 an appeal
court overturned the death sentence, but upheld
his conviction of blasphemy and sentenced him
to 20 years in jail. June 2010
30 Jul 2009
A Hamburg court ordered a German publisher to
pay Sweden's Princess Madeleine 400,000
Euros ($560,000) in damages for fabricating
stories about her. Sonnenverlag GmbH & Co KG
magazines had carried false reports about the 27-
year-old princess being engaged and pregnant,
among other things. Sonnenverlag's parent
company, Baden-Baden based KLAMBT media
group, confirmed the ruling. January 2010
17 Aug 2009
In Sweden the Aftonbladet tabloid published an
incendiary article claiming that Israeli soldiers
had harvested the organs of some Palestinians
whom they had shot. Israel quickly denounced the
article, while Sweden defended its freedom of
expression. June 2010
29 Aug 2010
Chad's new media law scraps prison sentences
for press-related crimes but slaps defaulters with
huge fines which would force them out of
media-law-threatens-huge-fines April 2011
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