Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
1941
Argentina
Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), Argentinian
writer and poet, describes in his short story The
Library of Babylon, a library with an infinite
number of books on every conceivable topic in
every possible language. Again, in 1971 in The
Book of Sand, he describes a book with an
infinite number of pages. Both images foretell the
ever expanding galaxy of WWW documents
which sprang into existence in 1991.
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1900early.ht
ml#1930s February 2011
1962
US
Dr. J.C.R. Licklider is appointed to lead ARPA
and given the mission to develop military uses of
computer technology
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1962
US
Paul Baran of RAND publishes On Distributed
Communications Networks - the basic concept of
packet-switching networks, a system that
prevents any single outage point from halting
communication.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1969
US
A primitive network was established between
UCLA (Xerox DSS7), Stanford Research Institute
(NIC-SDS940), UC Santa Barbara (IBM 360/75),
and the University of Utah (DEC PDP-10) in Salt
Lake City. By the end of the summer they were
ready to see if something typed on a computer at
UCLA would appear on the computer at SRI.
They began by typing login. Did it work? Well,
they got as far a g before the system crashed, but
it was a start.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1971
US
ARPANET has expanded to15 nodes (23 hosts):
UCLA, SRI, UCSB, U of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND,
SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C),
CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1972
International
The InterNetworking Working Group is founded to
govern the standards of the Internet. Vinton Cerf
is the chairman and is known as a "Father of the
Internet".
http://www.wavefrontcg.com/A_Brief_History
_of_Cybercrime.html February 2011
1972
US
Bob Kahn demonstrates ARPANET in the
basement the Washington (DC) Hilton Hotel by
networking 40 computers at universities and
research centers around the country. The
technicians from AT&T don't think it would work,
let alone be of interest to anyone other than a
handful of computer scientists and techno-
dweebs, but event was a great success and
triggered more intensive development of the idea
of hooking a bunch of computers together.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1972
US
The InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) is
created to address the need for establishing
standardized, agreed upon protocols. The group
is chaired by Internet pioneer Vinton Cerf.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1973
International
England and Norway make the first international
connections to the ARPANET.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1973
US
The Arpanet had 2,000 users.
http://www.scaruffi.com January 2007
1982
International
200 computers connected to the Internet
worldwide.
http://www.ketupa.net March 2007
1984
Japan
JUNET (Japan Unix Network) is established
using UUCP.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1987
International
10,000 hosts on the Internet.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
1989
Europe
Reseaux IP Europeens (RIPE) was established.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
1989
International
100,000 hosts on the Internet.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
1989
Switzerland
Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal at CERN,
Switzerland, that a global hypertext space be
created in which any network-accessible
information could be referred to by a single
"Universal Document Identifier". In 1990 he wrote
a program called WorldWideWeb.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1990
Canada
Archie is released by Peter Deutsch, Alan
Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill University.
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1991
Europe
In Europe, number of Internet sites more than
triples in one year and passes 100,000.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu April 2007
1992
International
More than 1,000,000 Internet hosts.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1993
International
New words for 1993: "information highway",
"anon server", also "anonymous server", "surf", in
reference to Internet use, "netizen", "National
Information Infrastructure", a high-sounding term
for the Internet, "Internet Talk Radio", "URL", and
"cybersex".
http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.ht
ml November 2010
1994
US
After 25 years, U.S. government privatizes
Internet management.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu April 2007
1995
Denmark
Denmark announces a plan to put much of the
nation online within 5 years.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu April 2007
1995
Switzerland
A group of 7 Swiss artists registered the domain
name of Etoy.com with Network Solutions. In
1999 the toy company EToys.com sued the
artists and forced them to shut their web site
down.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1995
US
First US NTIA Falling Through The Net report.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
1995
US
NSF transfers control of four major Internet
access points to Ameritech, Sprint, MFS and
PacBell.
http://www.caslon.com March 2008
1996
International
45 million Internet users, including 30 million in
U.S.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu May 2007
1996
US
Over 3,800 ISPs in US.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
1997
International
Exploding growth: more than 4,000 ISPs in the
U.S. and Canada alone.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1997
International
U.S. business accounted for 90 percent of
Internet commerce in 1997, 70 percent of
commercial websites, and 93 percent of web
revenues.
McChesney, Rich, P. 133
1997
North America
More than 50 million Americans, Canadians use
the Internet.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu April 2007
1997
US
Nearly 8 of 10 U.S. public schools have Internet
access.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2007
1998
International
150 million Internet users in the world estimated
at year's end. Estimate of 300 million web pages.
Estimated number of Web pages added each
day: 1.5 million.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu April 2007
1998
International
In 1998 the Clinton administration decided that
the US government would abandon the
management of the Internet's address system,
turning it over to an international nonprofit group
that would represent elements of the Internet
industry. The core telecommunications
companies that now own the Internet's backbone,
including MCI, GTE, and AT&T, have formed the
Global Internet Project to provide 'longer-term
solutions' to Internet self-regulations.
McChesney, RIch, P. 133
1998
International
In October 1998 the largest U.S. Internet firms, in
combination with Internet firms from Europe,
Australia, and Japan, established the Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(ICANN)
McChesney, Rich, P. 133-34
1998
International
Traffic on the Internet, network of networks, is
doubling every 100 days.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu September
2007
1998
US
1,280 TV stations [in the US] now have online
Websites.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu September
2007
1998
US
75 million Internet users estimated in US.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
1998
US
FCC's E-Rate program makes Internet access
cheap for libraries, schools.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1998
US
The ten most popular US Web sites in 1998 were
1) CNN.com; 2) ZDNet.com; 3) MSNBC.com; 4)
weather.com; 5) Disney Online; 6) ESPN.com; 7)
Pathfinder.com (Time Warner's site); 8)
USAToday.com; 9) digitalcity.com; and 10)
ABCNews,com.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 269
Apr 1998
US
Google WWW crawler intelligent search engine,
developed at Stanford University, California.
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1900late.htm
l#1998 November 2010
1999
In the age of the Internet, in which anyone with a
Web page can launch a news story,
internationally, the corporate gate keeping of
news is finally beginning to subside."
Levinson, Digital McLuhan, P. 7 (1999)
1999
The Internet highlights another way in which the
content of the medium aids our understanding of
media. In McLuhan's quest to uncover the
ordinarily hidden dimensions and effects of
media - unnoticed because we focus on content
and take the underlying medium for granted - he
observed that media suddenly become more
visible and attractive as objects of study when
they are superseded by newer media, and
become their new content.
Levinson, Digital McLuhan, P. 5 (1999)
1999
Canada
The Canadian Radio-television and
Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
released its Report on New Media, which stated
that the CRTC would not attempt to regulate the
Internet. The CRTC leaves "Canadian Internet
Presence" and "Canadian Product" to market
forces.
http://www.media-awareness.ca/english
August 2006
1999
International
10 million Web servers throughout the world.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1999
International
More than 800 million web pages.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2007
1999
International
Over 4,000 ISPs in EU and 6,700 in US.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
24 Mar 1999
US
Wireless Markup Language (WML) Specification
Version 1.1 is released. WML is a markup
language based on XML and is designed to
cope with the constraints of small narrowband
devices (cellular phones, pages, palmtop
computers). These constraints include: (a) small
display and limited user input facilities; (b)
narrowband network connection; (c) limited
memory and computational resources. WML
offers: support for a variety of text and image
formatting and layout commands; Hypercard style
interface metaphor (all information in WML is
organised into a collection of cards and decks);
Inter-card navigation and linking; string
parameterization and state management
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/early.html#1
st century BCE November 2010
2000
China
There were 22 million Chinese with access to the
Internet.
Time Magazine 6 December 2010
02 Feb 2000
US
Pres. Clinton proposed a $2 billion "ClickStart"
program to bring Internet access to low-income
households.
http://timelines.ws June 2009
2001
US
More than half of all Americans used the Internet.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
05 Sep 2001
Canada
The Canadian government said it will spend
C$105 million ($66.9 million) in the first stage of
a plan to connect the country's rural residents to
high-speed Internet service by 2005.
http://timelines.ws July 2007
2002
UK
UK workers spend more time with email than with
their children.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
2002
US
70 percent of U.S. households could have
broadband service [mainly for Internet access];
151se it.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2006
2003
Australia
Number of Internet subscribers in Australia
reaches over 5.2m.
http://www.caslon.com July 2007
2003
Europe
European Union requires Internet companies to
tax downloads.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2007
2003
US
CIPA declared constitutional in US.
http://www.caslon.com July 2008
2003
US
Some U.S. states tax Internet bandwidth.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2007
2004
International
Google got 138,000 requests a minute in 90
languages.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
2004
US
An AOL survey finds that 706164170f U.S. teens age
12-17 use the Internet for instant messaging,
which is expected to overtake e-mail as the most
popular form of Internet communication in 2005.
http://Iml.jou.ufl.edu/CARLSON August 2006
2005
International
Yahoo, Google, America OnLine (AOL) and MSN
(Microsoft's Network) are the four big Internet
portals with a combined audience of over one
billion people worldwide.
http://www.scaruffi.com August 2006
2005
US
US government indicates intention to retain
control of the Root.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
2006
China
American search engine Google accepts to
cooperate with the government of Mainland
China in censoring the World Wide Web.
http://www.scaruffi.com March 2007
2006
France
Time Warner sells AOL France's internet access
business to Neuf Cegetel for 288m
http://ketupa.net/timeline9.htm January 2011
2006
International
The World Wide Web has 100 million Websites.
http://www.scaruffi.com March 2007
2007
Africa
According to 2007 and 2008 estimates, about 4
percent of the African population has Internet
access.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_in_Africa
May 2011
2008
Egypt
In Egypt, political activists use Facebook to rally
for democracy.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
Mar 2008
International
International SQL and iFrame Injection are used
to add Javascript code to websites which then
download viruses and other malware from hacker
sites when browsed. Search Engine Optimization
(SEO) techniques result in infected pages being
placed high on Google's search results. Affected
sites number in excess of 200,000.
http://www.wavefrontcg.com/A_Brief_History
_of_Cybercrime-4.html February 2011
Jul 2008
Canada
Canadian Teachers Federation proposes adding
Cyber-Bullying to Canadian Criminal Code.
http://www.wavefrontcg.com/A_Brief_History
_of_Cybercrime-4.html February 2011
17 Jul 2008
Egypt
Wikimania 2008 opened in to Alexandria, Egypt,
for a 3-day tradecraft meeting. The gathering of
online encyclopaedia creators drew some 650
Wikipedians from 45 countries.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
19 Dec 2008
Egypt
Egypt's communications ministry says Internet
cables in the Mediterranean Sea have been cut,
causing massive Internet outages.
http://timelines.ws September 2006
2009
International
According to a report from the United Nations, an
estimated 1.7 billion people, or 26 percent of the
world's population, were online in 2009, up from
11 percent in 2002. Still, four out of five people
living in poor countries had no access to the
Internet, with China alone comprising a third of
the people online in the developing world.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35539966/ns/t
echnology_and_science-wireless/
December 2010
2010
China
420 million Chinese have access to the Internet.
Time Magazine 6 December 2010
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