Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
0206 BCE
China
China has been credited with producing some
types of imperial court news-sheets in the Han
(206 BC- AD 220) and the Tang (618-907)
dynasties.
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/31/
eng20060531_269991.html March 2011
1088
Spain
An almanac is an annual publication containing
tabular information in a particular field or fields
often arranged according to the calendar. The
earliest known almanac in the modern sense is
the Almanac of Azarqueil written in 1088 in
Toledo al-Andalus. The work provided the true
daily positions of the sun, moon and planets for
four years from 1088 to 1092, as well as many
other related tables.
http://www.mkbergman.com/temp-exhibit/
September 2010
1605
Germany
The German-language Relation aller
Fuernemmen und gedenckwuerdigen Historien,
printed from 1605 onwards by Johann Carolus in
Strasbourg, is often recognized as the first
newspaper.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper May
2011
02 Dec 1620
England
An English newspaper headline read: "The new
tidings out of Italie are not yet come." In 2006 this
was reported to be the world's oldest headline.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
1645
Sweden
In Sweden the Post Och Inrikes Tidningar began
daily publication for bankruptcies, corporate and
government announcements. On Jan 1, 2007, the
world's oldest newspaper stopped publishing on
paper and moved to the Internet.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
06 Mar 1665
England
Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society
started publishing.
http://timelines.ws February 2007
07 Nov 1665
England
The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal,
was first published.
http://timelines.ws February 2007
1690
US
Benjamin Harris, an ally of Titus Oats and one of
the anti-Catholic conspirators against Charles II,
had taken refuge across the Atlantic and
hastened to start a newspaper, Public
Occurrences, as early as 1690.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 71
27 Jun 1693
England
The first woman's magazine The Ladies' Mercury
was published in London.
http://timelines.ws February 2007
1695
England
The end of the Licensing Act [in Britain] in 1695
was followed by a large number of publications
and the appearance of the first daily sheets in
1701. The limitations of the hand press in which 2,
000 sheets could be printed by relays of press
men on one side in eight hours checked the
circulation of single newspapers, led to the
appearance of a large number of small papers,
and favoured other media in which time was a
less important consideration. The limitations of
newspapers accentuated the importance of
pamphlets as weapons in party warfare and
assumed the enlistment of effective writers such
as Swift, Defoe, Addison, and Steele. Of Harley,
Swift wrote 'no other man of affairs has ever
made such use of a man of letter.'
Innis, Empire, P. 179
11 Mar 1702
England
The Daily Courant, the first regular daily
newspaper in English, is published in London.
http://grammar.about.com/od/words/a/historyt
imeline_2.htm July 2007
1704
England
In England Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) began
publishing The Review.
http://timelines.ws March 2009
1704
US
Boston postmaster John Campbell established
the Boston News Letter (newspaper).
Smith, Newspaper, P. 71
12 Apr 1709
UK
The Tatler magazine in England published its first
edition. It used the names of coffee houses as
subject headings for articles.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1712
UK
A stamp act introduced in England in 1712 (and
not removed until 1855) required newspapers to
affix stamps so that by raising the price of
stamps newspapers could be raised beyond the
purchasing power of all but wealthy readers.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
January 2008
1712
UK
English Tories introduced a stamp tax, which
taxed newspapers per sheet. Papers were then
published as broadsheets, single sheets with
huge pages.
http://timelines.ws February 2007
06 Dec 1712
UK
Last edition of The Spectator is published.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2007
1722
UK
The reporting of debates by journalists was
banned by the British parliament.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1729
Germany
In 1729, the Chancellor of the University of Halle,
Johann Peter Von Ledewig, started the
Wochentiliche Hallische Prage und Anzeigungs
Nachrichten (Halle weekly press and advertiser),
which concentrated on appropriately learned
articles and announcements of books.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 67
1731
UK
The Gentleman's Magazine is founded in London
by Edward Cave, using the pseudonym Sylvanus
Urban. Each issue costs 6d (2½p). In his famous
Dictionary, Samuel Johnson credits Cave with
inventing the concept of a 'magazine' and using
the word in this sense (as opposed to its military
meaning). It runs until 1914.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1736
US
The South had lagged behind the North not only
in the formation of schools (almost all of which
were private rather than public) but in its use of
the printing press. Virginia, for example, did not
get its first regularly published newspaper, The
Virginia Gazette, until 1736.
Postman, Amusing ourselves to death, P. 38
1738
UK
The printing of parliamentary debates in Britain
was prohibited.
http://timelines.ws August 2006
25 Mar 1752
Canada
March 25 marked the first issue of the Halifax
Gazette.
http://www.timelines.ws May 2011
05 Jun 1762
UK
English parliamentarian John Wilkes began
publishing his North Briton journal.
http://timelines.ws May 2011
1765
US
Patrick Henry's Stamp Act Speech is distributed
throughout the colonies by underground press.
http://www.csulb.edu February 2008
1777
UK
By this year, the dailies had practically displaced
the weeklies.
Innis, Bias, P. 153
1779
UK
Harrison's Novelists' Magazine was started and
began the publishing of numbers. It ran to twenty-
three volumes selling up to 12,000 copies
weekly.
Innis, Bias, P. 153
1780
Switzerland
Salomon Gessner, printer, poet and friend of
Goethe, founded the Neue Zurcher Zeitung (NZZ).
In 2005 the newspaper celebrated its 225th
birthday.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
26 Mar 1780
UK
The first British Sunday newspaper appeared as
the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1784
US
The Pennsylvania Packet and Advertiser
became the first daily newspaper in the US.
Innis, Bias, P. 158
1785
UK
The Daily Universal Register (renamed The
Times in 1788) begins publication in London.
http://grammar.about.com/od/words/a/historyt
imeline_2.htm January 2007
16 Sep 1789
France
Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in
France, L'Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the
People).
http://timelines.ws April 2008
04 Dec 1791
UK
The Observer, the oldest national Sunday
newspaper in Britain, begins publication.
http://grammar.about.com/od/words/a/historyt
imeline_2.htm January 2007
05 Mar 1803
Australia
Australia's first newspaper, The Sydney Gazette
& New South Wales Advertiser was first
published.
http://timelines.ws March 2008
1808
UK
The first war correspondent: Henry Robinson of
The Times of London.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2008
1814
UK
The Times (established in 1785) in London is
selling 5,000 copies a day.
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1800.html#1
800s August 2010
1819
UK
The Morning Chronicle, which James Perry had
acquired in 1789 with a circulation of 350, was by
1819 making an annual profit from
advertisements and sales of 12,400 pounds.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 79
1822
China
However, the newspaper in its modern sense,
distributed publicly and regularly, did not appear
in China until the 19th century. The first, launched
in 1822, was a Portuguese-language weekly in
Macao.
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/31/
eng20060531_269991.html March 2011
1828
US
The Napier press, a double cylinder press
brought in from England, was installed by R. Hoe
and Company in the New York Commercial
Advertiser and the Philadelphia Daily Chronicle.
Innis, Bias, P. 159
1830
Australia
Newspaper Stamp Tax abolished in Australia.
http://www.caslon.com March 2009
1830
US
715 newspapers were in circulation in the US.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu May 2007
1831
Australia
The Sydney Morning Herald printed its premier
issue at the Keep Within Compass pub.
http://timelines.ws August 2006
1833
US
A penny buys a newspaper, the New York Sun,
opening a mass market.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2006
25 Aug 1835
US
The popular New York Sun newspaper reaches a
nationwide audience following the publication of
an article claiming that vegetation grows on the
moon.
http://timelines.ws December 2006
1836
UK
The stamp tax on serials ws reduced from
fourpence to one penny.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 122
1837
US
The world's largest newspaper, New York Sun,
had a circulation of 30,000.
http://www.ketupa.net October 2006
1840
US
Postmaster General Niles in 1840 wrote: 'All
newspapers now pay the same rates of postage,
although some are ten times the dimension and
weight of others. This is not only unjust to those
who pay the taxes but equally so to publishers. It
gives an undue advantage to the larger
establishments in the commercial cities over the
penny papers in the same place, and over the
country newspapers, which are more removed
from sinister influences in general are the most
independent channels of sound public opinion.
Innis, Bias, P. 166
1845
UK
The Times has by far the largest daily circulation
of any British newspaper, selling up to 26,000
copies.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2007
09 Jan 1845
UK
In its pre-telegraph era, The Times, the
newspaper in London which prides itself on
getting the news by fastest means possible,
publishes reports from Berlin (1 week old); New
York (4 weeks old); Rio (6 weeks) and the Cape
(8 weeks old).
http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1800.html#1
800s July 2007
1850
US
Number of magazines published in US reaches
685.
http://www.magforum.com January 2009
1851
UK
Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899), a German-born
immigrant, began transmitting stock-market
quotes between London and Paris over the new
Dover-Calais submarine telegraph cable.
http://timelines.ws September 2006
1851
US
Newspaper postage cut in half - free distribution
within county.
http://www.caslon.com December 2006
1855
UK
Newspapers saw the abolition of the newspaper
tax in 1855 and in 1861 the duty on paper. Thus
while The Times continued to sell its dominant
position was threatened by the increasing
number of penny dailies (The Times continued to
charge 3d until 1870).
http://vichist.blogspot.com/2008/11/penny-
dreadfuls.html
1858
Lebanon
Since 1858, date of the appearance of the first
Lebanese newspaper in Lebanon Hadikat Al-
Akhbar and in Istanbul published by a Lebanese,
Iskandar Shalhoub, and stopped in 1914, most of
the Lebanese newspapers were meant to
express personal opinions and political projects
and marked with a liberal trend.
http://www.opuslibani.org.lb/Lebanon/dos005
.html March 2011
1860
US
260 magazines are published in the United
States.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2006
1861
UK
The number of newspapers in the UK was 1,102.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 127
1862
US
President Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus and
jails "copperhead" editors opposing his war
policy.
http://www.csulb.edu December 2006
1863
UK
Illustrated London News selling 300,000 copies a
week.
http://www.magforum.com January 2008
1865
UK
Establishment of Council of Law Reporting and
commencement of official law reports in England.
http://www.caslon.com July 2007
1865
US
William Bullock introduced a printing press that
could feed paper on a continuous roll and print
both sides of the paper at once. Used first by the
Philadelphia Ledger, the machine would become
an American standard, and would also kill its
maker, who died when he accidentally fell into
one of his presses.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html December 2006
1868
UK
The Daily News installed the American Hoe
Company presses, capable of producing 7,500
copies an hour, and reduces the price to 1d.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August 2006
1870
US
5,091 newspapers were in circulation in the US.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu March 2007
1871
China
The longest-running Chinese language
newspaper in Old China Shen Bao, documented
the political, military, economic, cultural and
social affairs for 78 years until its closure in May
1949. [Note: started publishing in roughly 1871 -
SM]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/31/
eng20060531_269991.html March 2011
1871
International
The London Telegraph shared with the New York
Herald the sponsorship of Stanley's trip to Africa
in search of Livingstone in 1871.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 123
1872
US
The Associated Press extended its news service
to 200 papers.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu May 2007
1876
UK
The introduction of special newspaper trains in
1876 meant that the London papers could
circulate throughout the country, rivalling the
major provincial papers in their own territory.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 127
1877
Japan
In Japan, ten years after the first magazine was
published, there are 200.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1877
UK
Telegraph [in London] claims to have largest
circulation of any newspaper in the world.
http://www.ketupa.net December 2006
06 Dec 1877
US
The Washington Post newspaper began
publication with a circulation of 10,000, costing 3
cents a paper.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu May 2008
1879
Japan
The Asahi Shimbun newspaper was founded.
http://timelines.ws September 2006
1880
Australia
Sydney journalists J. F. Archibald and John
Haynes founded The Bulletin with an editorial
focus on political and business commentary, with
some literary content. The magazine shut down in
2008 due to falling circulation blamed in part on
the Internet.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1880
France
Current events became the daily fare of the
popular Parisian dailies, whose overall
circulation increased 250 percent between 1880
and 1914.
Schwartz, Cinematic spectatorship, in
Cinema and the invention of modern life, P.
300
1880
UK
By 1880 London had 18 dailies, the English
provinces 96, Wales 4, Scotland 21, and Ireland
17.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 126
1880
UK
Specialist papers abounded: in 1880 there were
44 religious newspapers, 35 temperance
newspapers, 33 humorous publications, 24
fashion papers and 21 sporting journals.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 127
1881
Japan
The Asahi Shimbun newspaper became jointly
owned by Ryuhei Murayama and Riichi Ueno.
http://timelines.ws August 2006
1883
US
Joseph Pulitzer assumed command of the New
York World newspaper with a circulation of 15,
000. 4 years later it increased to 350,000.
Pulitzer purchased the newspaper from financier
Jay Gould.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
1885
US
New postal regulations in the US reduced the
cost of second class mailing to one cent per
pound, allowing an almost immediate increase in
the number of new subscription-based
periodicals.
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu August 2006
1887
Canada
National news and politics found an outlet in
Toronto Saturday Night, which dropped the city
name in 1889. This consumer magazine, a feisty
combination of social news and political
crusades against issues such as divorce or the
exploitation of labour, soon developed a
highbrow following, and circulation reached 10,
000.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
January 2007
03 Mar 1894
US
The first Greek newspaper in America was
published on this day. It was known as the "New
York Atlantis".
http://Timelines.ws May 2010
1896
Germany
The art magazine Jugend was first published.
Blistène, History, P. 21
1896
US
In 1896, with the financial support of his mother,
William Randolph Hearst bought the failing New
York Morning Journal, hiring writers like Stephen
Crane and Julian Hawthorne and entering into a
head-to-head circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer,
owner and publisher of the New York World, from
whom he 'stole' Richard F. Outcault, the inventor
of color comics, and all of Pulitzer's Sunday staff
as well.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Randolp
h_Hearst May 2010
1899
US
California passes law to regulate political
cartoons.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu May 2008
1900
France
By the turn of th century, Paris had acquired 139
daily papers, with a further 334 in the provinces.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 116
1900
UK
Circulation of The Daily Mail in the UK reached a
million copies a day.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June 2007
1900
US
562 cities in U.S. have more than one daily
newspaper; New York City has 29.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2007
1900
US
Newspapers attack patent medicines - also
periodicals as device for weakening position of
lower-grade newspapers and periodicals
dependent on that type of advertising and
increasing the possibilities of stronger papers
dependent on higher brackets of income.
Increasing circulation and demands of
advertisers for income drove out patent medicine
advertising.
Innis, Idea, 2-28
1900
US
There was never a precise pattern of each voting
district with its own journalistic media. But there
was once something like it. In 1900, for example,
there were 1,737 urban places and 2,226 daily
papers. This came close to an average of a
paper for every city; most cities had competing
dailies and weeklies. Papers were based in a
single city, and most papers pursued the intense
interests of their particular readers within that city.
It meant greater detail of information and political
analysis. Readers had strong loyalties to such
papers and they provided a greater proportion of
those papers' revenues than readers of the
1980s pay for their more bland dailies. In the past
it meant more, smaller papers, and smaller
papers meant it cost less to start new dailies. If
existing papers ignored the interests of a
significant part of the community there was a
greater likelihood chat an entrepreneur or
politically oriented publisher would start a new
paper to capitalize on the untouched audience.
As a result, turn-of-the-century papers more
readily reflected changes in the needs and
desires of the body politic.
http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Media/De
moMedia_Bagdikian.html January 2009
1900
US
Total newspaper circulation in U.S. passes 15
million daily.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu May 2008
1901
China
By 1901 there were some 125 newspapers in
China, with an estimated combined circulation of
no more than 100,000, according to Fang Hanqi,
professor emeritus of journalism at Renmin
University of China, who is best known for his
studies of the 20th century history of Chinese
media.
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/31/
eng20060531_269991.html March 2011
1906
UK
John Bull was launched by Odhams. A penny
weekly that was to become the UK's largest-
selling magazine, boasting a circulation (very
probably exaggerated) of 1,350,000 on its front
cover in 1916. Although highly patriotic, it took an
anti-establishment stance, championing
grievances of troops in the first world war, even
though this was illegal, under mercurial editor
Horatio Bottomley.
http://www.magforum.com August 2007
1908
France
Robert Schreiber founded Les Echos as a
marketing brochure. It grew to become France's
premier financial and corporate newspaper.
http://timelines.ws March 2008
1908
UK
Arthur Pearson sold the Daily Express
newspaper to a group of Liberal backers; the
circulation is 320,000.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1909
US
Pulitzer's World alleges corruption in purchase of
Panama Canal; Pulitzer indicted for criminal libel
of President Teddy Roosevelt and JP Morgan.
http://www.ketupa.net March 2008
1910
The idea of picture magazines in the 1930s was
not without its critics in Europe. To the socialist
Left, the magazines were tools of the bourgeoisie,
reinforcing a middle-class view of the world and
luring the proletariat into its culture. To intellectual
critics of popular culture (among them the
philosopher Martin Heidegger, who wrote
pessimistically in 1938 that 'the fundamental event
of the modern age is the conquest of the world as
picture'), the photo magazines were vehicles by
which 'readers' became 'lookers,' and
'understanding' became simply 'seeing.' That BIZ
and other German picture magazines became
tools of Nazi propaganda not long after 1932
without losing their popularity further persuaded
many critics - in Europe and America - that mass-
produced images were dangerously powerful
manipulators of culture and society. (Such
criticisms augured, and helped shape, the later
emergence of a broad critique of 'mass culture' in
the United States - among whose leaders was the
Time Inc. veteran Dwight Macdonald.) But the
appetite for photographs overwhelmed the critics.
To publishers, they were becoming irresistible.
Brinkley, Publisher, P. 209-210 (2010)
1912
US
Poetry: A Magazine of Verse was founded in
Chicago by Harriet Monroe in 1912. Taking
Whitman's line To have great poets there must
be great audiences too as the motto for her
magazine, Monroe sought to create an audience
for modern poetry and introduce readers to new
writers and ideas. By insisting on paying all
contributors and establishing an annual prize,
Poetry magazine raised the visibility and status
of poetry. The journal published and promoted
the careers of a galaxy of poets who came to
define twentieth century modernism, from T. S.
Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Marianne Moore to
Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams,
Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes, among
many others. Poetry transformed the way that
poetry and poets are recognized and read
worldwide, and it continues to flourish as a major
cultural influence.
http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/mopo.html
November 2010
05 May 1912
Russia
The Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda
(Truth) began publishing. Iosif Vissarionovich
Dzhugashvili took the name Stalin, meaning
"man of steel," about the time he helped found
the Russian Communist newspaper Pravda.
Stalin specialized in writing about national
minorities in Russia and went on to become
editor of Pravda.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1914
International
During the First World War relations between the
Associated Press [not controlled by Hearst] and
established agencies in Europe led him [Hearst]
to emphasize anti-English and anti-Allied news
with the result that during the war the
governments of Great Britain, France, Portugal,
Japan, and Canada imposed restriction on the
Hearst press.
Innis, Bias, P. 179-80
02 Aug 1914
France
German press falsely reported that French
bombed Nuremberg.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
15 Nov 1914
Italy
Italian socialist Benito Mussolini founded the
newspaper Il Populo d'Italia.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
29 Dec 1914
Belgium
The production of Belgian newspapers was
halted to protest German censorship.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1917
Italy
Benito Mussolini, editor of the Il Popolo d'Italia
newspaper, was paid 100 pounds a week by
Britain, equal to about 6,000 pounds ($9,600) in
2009. The paper campaigned to keep Italy on the
allied side in the war. This was made public in
2009 by Cambridge historian Peter Martland,
based on papers from Sir Samuel Hoare (1880-
1959), in charge of British agents in Rome at this
time.
http://timelines.ws November 2008
08 Feb 1923
Germany
German NSDAP (Nazi Party) Voelkischer
Beobachter newspaper became a daily.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1925
Brazil
Mr. Roberto Marinho (1904-2003) inherited the
Rio newspaper O Globo 23 days after it was
founded by his father who suddenly died. He
learned the business as a reporter and editor
and took over as editor in chief in 1931. The
operation later expanded to dominate the
television market.
http://timelines.ws June 2011
1927
India
In India the Musalman Urdu-language newspaper
began operating in Chennai. In 2008 the
handwritten newspaper was still operating with
some 23,000 subscribers.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1927
Japan
Chio Uno (1898-1996) scandalized Japanese
society by cutting her hair short. In 1936 she
founded Style, Japan's first fashion magazine.
She was awarded a title by the emperor and
named a "person of cultural merit" in 1990.
http://timelines.ws January 2009
1928
Canada
However, Mayfair and Chatelaine, both modeled
on American formats, were launched in the late
1920s, with Chatelaine gaining almost 60,000
readers in its first year (1928). Government was
finally beginning to listen to the woes of industry,
which had greatly increased with the advent of
commercially sponsored radio programs in
1928. "The world is listening, not reading" was
the slogan that wooed many advertisers, at least
temporarily, away from print and into broadcast.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
April 2007
1928
Germany
The Munich Illustrated Press was edited by
Hungarian-born Stefan Lorant (d.1997 at 96).
[Note: Lorant was also a filmmaker in his early
years and went on to major career in pictorial
publications in the US when he moved there.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1930
Germany
William L Shirer succeeded George Seldes as
the Berlin correspondent for the Chicago Tribune.
Shirer later wrote The Rise and Fall of the Third
Reich. [1930s]
http://timelines.ws January 2008
1931
Canada
R.B. Bennett's Conservative government
imposed a content tax on US magazines
devoting more than 20 percent of their space to
advertising, with the result that some 50
American magazines began printing in Canada.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
March 2009
1933
Germany
With the Nazi Coordination Measures
[Gleichshaltung] of 1933, a large proportion of
papers were forced into the ownership of a few
firms sympathetic to the National Socialist cause.
Communist and socialist publishing houses were
confiscated or closed, as were a number of right-
wing ones.
Smith, Newspaper, P. 177
19 Feb 1933
Germany
Herman Goering, Nazi Prussian minister, banned
all Catholic newspapers.
http://timelines.ws March 2010
1934
UK
The Radio Times overtakes John Bull as the
biggest-selling magazine, with sales of 2m a
week, a position it would hold until 1993.
http://www.magforum.com January 2007
26 Mar 1934
Switzerland
Switzerland banned all slanderous criticism of
state institutions in the press and threatened the
suspension of publications if the ban was not
heeded.
http://timelines.ws March 2009
1935
Canada
Mackenzie King removed the [content] tax when
his Liberals regained power in 1935, arguing that
it was a tax on thought and literary art. The
American magazines immediately returned home
and Canadians returned to importing them.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
April 2007
15 Mar 1935
Germany
Joseph Goebbels, German Minister of
Propaganda banned four Berlin newspapers.
http://timelines.ws January 2009
1936
Japan
Chio Uno and founded Style, Japan's first fashion
magazine. She was awarded a title by the
emperor and named a "person of cultural merit"
in 1990.
http://timelines.ws March 2008
1938
Germany
Approximately 12,000 periodicals in Germany in
1938.
Grun, Timetables, P. 515
1939
Canada
Circulation of Canada's top half dozen
magazines never amounted to more than 300,
000 during WWII, though American magazines
flooded the country.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
1940
Europe
Signal was a propaganda magazine published
by the Wehrmacht during World War II. It was
distributed throughout occupied Europe and
neutral countries. "Signal" was published from
April 1940 to March 1945, and had the highest
sales of any magazine published in Europe
during the period 1940 to 1945—circulation
peaked at two and one half million in 1943. At
various times, it was published in at least twenty
languages. There was an English edition
distributed in the British Channel Islands of
Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark—these
islands were occupied by the Wehrmacht during
World War II.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propagandastaff
el#Newspapers November 2010
1940
UK
Newsprint rationing was maintained on a
statutory basis between 1940 and 1956, and on
a voluntary basis to 1959. During the height of its
severity, newsprint rationing caused national
newspapers to shrink to less than a quarter of
their pre-war size and severely curtailed
advertising in national newspapers.
Curran, James, The Impact of advertising on
the British mass media (1981) in Marris and
Thornham, Media, P. 713
1946
Germany
Heinrich Springer and his son Axel founded a
newspaper in Hamburg that grew to become
Axel Springer Verlag AG, Germany's biggest and
most influential newspaper group.
http://timelines.ws December 2008
1947
France
'Loi Bichet' in France. [Note: Concerning
freedom of the press. -SM]
http://www.caslon.com January 2009
1947
Poland
Jerzy Giedroyc (d.2000 at 94), Polish émigré,
founded the Kultura literary magazine outside of
Paris. Co-founder Zofia Hertz (d.2003 at 92)
continued the magazine.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1947
US
Vice Versa believed to be the first lesbian
periodical in the United States, is founded in Los
Angeles by Edith Eyde under the pseudonym
Lisa Ben.
http://www.ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/glbt/pdfs/Ti
meline omplete-Updated.pdf
January 2011
Feb 1947
Germany
In Germany Rudolf Augstein (23) took over a
weekly news magazine from British occupiers
and began publishing Der Spiegel (The Mirror).
Augstein died in 2002. In 1974 Augstein gave
Spiegel's staff half of the company's shares.
http://timelines.ws January 2008
1948
Germany
In Germany Henri Nannen (1914-1996) founded
the weekly illustrated Zickzack Magazine that
later was renamed Stern.
http://timelines.ws March 2009
1948
UK
News of the World [newspaper] sells 8 million
copies in UK.
http://www.caslon.com March 2007
Apr 1949
Canada
Following years of exploitation of journalists and
a series of blatantly oppressive union-busting
measures, middle-class journalists in Toronto
achieved a collective agreement with the Toronto
Star. Journalists joined the American Newspaper
Guild and rates were established for salaries,
overtime, and hours of work.
Nesbitt-Larking, Politics, P. 183
1950
UK
Radio Times takes out page advertising in the
Economist to announce sales of 8,832,579
copies - 'the largest sale of any weekly magazine
in the world'. Comparison with Life in the US -
sales of 5.6m.
http://www.magforum.com April 2007
1951
US
From Los Angeles, Bob Mizer distributes
Physique Pictorial the first muscle magazine
targeted towards gay men. In the next two
decades, the magazine and Mizer's company,
Athletic Model Guild inspire dozes of imitators.
http://www.ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/glbt/pdfs/Ti
meline20Complete20-20Updated.pdf
January 2011
15 Jun 1951
US
St. Louis Star Times ceases publication after
being bought by the Pulitzer-owned Post-
Dispatch.
Merritt, The Fifties
1952
Australia
In Australia Rupert Murdoch (21) inherited 2
fledgling newspapers in Adelaide. By 2003 his
empire generated $17 billion a year in revenues.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1952
Canada
Purchase of Albertan by Aberhart's government
to serve as check against attacks of other papers
- inroads of radio on newspaper. Backlog of
graduates from his school - influence as a
teacher on large numbers of students - also Bible
Institute attracting religion. Significance of
interrelation between printing or written and oral
tradition -written disciplines oral tradition and
loses control with sudden improvement of oral
communication, i.e. Radio and outburst of
fascism and nazism of small parties - Aberhart in
Alberta and CCF in Saskatchewan. [Note:
Albertan was purchased at some point in the
1930s. Interesting to see CCF and Social Credit
both labelled fascist! - SM]
Innis, Idea File, 8-15 (1952)
1952
International
In pictorial papers and magazines even words
take on the character of landscape.
McLuhan in Essential McLuhan, P. 291
(1952)
1952
International
Newspapers are not interested in freedom of
speech but in getting advertising from
organizations interested in freedom of speech
Innis, Idea, 5-87 (1952)
1952
US
Copyright act made available American fiction to
meet demands of Curtis who discovered that
fiction scattered through pages compelled
people to turn pages and read advertising
material at side. Large circulations based on
advertising - length of articles determined by
needs of magazine. Second basis of large
circulation in fashion patterns - Delineator
(Butterick Company) circulation 500,000 by
1900. Women always the backbone of magazine
business - women most popular and highest paid
contributors woman's magazines largest
circulation. Writers to live must concentrate on
magazines. Textbooks in public schools train
youth to read magazines. Quasi-sanctity of
written word evident in people who resent
misstatements of authors.
Innis, Idea File, 17-36 (1952)
1952
US
Evening Post with long tradition exploded into
Nation, Saturday Review of Literature and
tabloid. Price of books rose after 1900 while
magazines declined. F.D.R. [Roosevelt] brought
cost of mailing books into line with magazines.
Innis, Idea File, 15-43 (1952)
1952
US
Music - emphasis on special advantages -
foreign music, special church music, teaching.
Concentration on magazine Etude gave Presser
Philadelphia control over large publishing
business at expense of Boston. Magazine
effective in reaching consumer."
Innis, Idea, 15-78 (1952)
1952
US
Pulitzer had excellent editorial page because of
blindness - editorials read to him.
Innis, Idea File, 16-3 (1952)
14 Feb 1952
US
Cincinnati Time-Star announces its purchase of
the late John R. McLean's 110 year-old
Cincinnati Enquirer for $7.5 million, subject to
court approval.
Merritt, The Fifties
1953
Canada
Marshall McLuhan founded with the
anthropologist Edmund S. Carpenter and with
part of a Ford Foundation grant a magazine
called Explorations. Some of its essays were
later published in the book Explorations in
Communication in 1960. The last issue of the
magazine appeared in 1959.
http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/mcluhan.htm May
2011
1953
UK
The first issue of the US CIA sponsored British
magazine Encounter was published under Irving
Kristol and Stephen Spender. It became the
West's most important vehicle for highbrow anti-
Marxist commentary. The funding source did not
become known until 1966/7.
http://timelines.ws January 2008
1953
US
In Los Angeles the homophile group One Inc.
begins publishing One, an influential early gay
periodical. After the postmaster refuses to
accept a 1954 edition declaring it "obscene," the
group appeals. After several losses it wins a big
victory in 1958 when the U.S. Supreme Court
overturns the previous rulings without comment.
From that point on homophile magazines are
spared censorship by postal or other authorities.
http://www.ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/glbt/pdfs/Ti
melineomplete-Updated.pdf
January 2011
01 Jun 1953
US
Picket-size news-weekly Quick ends publications,
and merges with its parent magazine, Look.
Merritt, The Fifties
1954
Canada
Thomson owns largest number of newspapers in
Canada.
http://www.ketupa.net March 2007
1954
US
1,768 US newspapers publish 59 million copies
daily in 1954.
Grun, Timetables, P. 537
17 Mar 1954
US
Robert McCormick sells the Washington Times
Herald to the Washington Post for a reported $10
million. The two papers are merged as the
Washington Post and Times Herald leaving the
nation's capital with three daily newspapers.
Merritt, The Fifties
22 Feb 1955
US
Kansas City Star is convicted in federal court of
trying to monopolize dissemination of news and
advertising in the Kansas City area.
Merritt, The Fifties
16 Mar 1955
US
Brooklyn Eagle publisher Frank Schroth
announces plans to discontinue publication due
to a 47-day strike by American Newspaper Guild
editorial writers.
Merritt, The Fifties
27 Mar 1956
US
US seized the US communist newspaper Daily
Worker.
Timelines.ws January 2008
27 Nov 1956
US
Cleveland's daily newspapers resume
publication after photoengravers accept terms
granted other craft unions.
Merritt, The Fifties
1960
International
The modern newspaper is a magical institution
like the rainmaker. It is written to release feelings
and to keep us in a state of perpetual emotion. It
is not intended to provide rational schemes or
patterns for digesting the news. It never provides
insights into events, but merely the thrill of the
event.
McLuhan in Essential McLuhan, P. 291
(1960)
17 Dec 1960
US
Editor and Publisher magazine reports that only
50 of the nation's major cities have two or more
competitively only daily newspapers.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1961
Canada
Grattan O'Leary, editor of the Ottawa Journal,
was appointed chairman of a 3-member Royal
Commission on Publications to study the
"position and prospects of Canadian magazines
and other periodicals with special attention to
foreign competition." The commission found that
75 percent of the general-interest magazines
bought in Canada were American publications,
that Time and Reader's Digest took 40 cents out
of every dollar of magazine advertising, and that
there were only 5 Canadian general-interest
consumer magazines, of which Maclean's and
Liberty were in poor financial shape (Liberty
ceased publication in 1964). When the
commission tabled its report in June 1961, its
major recommendations were that expenditures
made for advertisements in imported
publications aimed at the Canadian market be
disallowed as income tax deductions and that
foreign periodicals containing Canadian
domestic advertising be banned from entering
Canada.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
1961
UK
43-year-old Denis Hamilton appointed editor of
the Sunday Times by new owner Roy Thomson.
This was not long after the paper announced it
was developing a Sunday color supplement. The
paper's sales at the time were about 1m copies;
the Sunday Express sold 4.5m and the Sunday
Telegraph 700,000.
http://www.magforum.com December 2008
12 Oct 1961
US
A new national weekly newspaper called World
goes on sale in about 100 US cities.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
09 Jan 1962
US
Two LA Hearst newspapers, the Examiner and
the Herald-Express merge to form the new Los
Angeles Herald-Examiner. Another LA daily, the
MIrror, ended publication on January 5.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
05 Feb 1962
US
The National Observer, a weekly national
newspaper published in Washington by Down
Jones & Co. begins publication.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
15 Oct 1962
US
The Brooklyn Eagle a NYC newspaper founded
in 1841 resumes publication after a seven-year
suspension in operations.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1964
Canada
Two magazine begins publication and continues
publishing until 1966. It is the first gay magazine
in Canada.
http://www.ncsu.edu/stud_affairs/glbt/pdfs/Ti
melineomplete-Updated.pdf
January 2011
1965
Sweden
Swedish daily newspapers numbered 119
reaching nearly 1006164140f the adult population.
New Columbia Encyclopedia
21 Mar 1966
US
Three New York newspapers announce merger
plans.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1967
US
There were 1,754 daily newspapers in the US.
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2009
1968
Germany
A government inquiry indicates that Axel Springer
publishes 40 percent of West German
newspapers and 20 percent of magazines.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2009
1969
Canada
By the late 1960s three newspaper chains -
Thomson Newspapers Co. Ltd., Southam Inc.
and Financial Post Publications - controlled
almost 50 per cent of Canada's English daily
newspapers. That was an increase from 25 per
cent in 1958. These growing concentrations of
ownership lead to a Royal Commission on
Newspapers. The appointment of a special
committee in March 1969, headed by Senator
Keith Davey, sparked public discussions on the
state of Canadian press.
http://archives.cbc.ca July 2007
1972
Philippines
In the Philippines, Marcos' martial law throttled
one of Asia's freest presses.
http://tww.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1975
UK
Disparities still persist however in the advertising
revenue per copy obtained by Conservative and
Labour papers. For example, the net
advertisement revenue of the generally
Conservative Sunday Times was almost four
times that of the Labour Sunday Mirror in 1975,
despite the fact that it had less than half the
Sunday Mirror's circulation. These disparities do
not arise from political prejudice but from the fact
that, generally speaking, Conservative papers
reach readers who have more money to spend,
more influence over corporate spending, and
watch less ITV than readers of Labour papers.
Curran, James, The Impact of Advertising on
the British Mass Media, in Marris and
Thornham, Media, P. 715
1976
US
Dorothy Schiff (1903-1989) sold the New York
Post, founded in 1801, to Rupert Murdoch,
Australian media tycoon, for $30 million.
http://timelines.ws May 2008
1978
China
When Deng Xiaoping initiated reforms and
opening up in 1978, there were 764 newspapers
in China, according to a research team with the
Institute of Media Research, Chinese Academy
of Social Sciences. The combined annual
circulation of the newspapers was 13.1 billion in
1978, an average of 53,000 copies per paper
every day, according to National Bureau of
Statistics.
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/31/
eng20060531_269991.html March 2011
1978
US
Journalist Myron Farber of the New York Times is
sent to jail for refusing to reveal his confidential
sources.
http://www.scaruffi.com January 2007
03 Jul 1980
US
The Berkeley Barb, the prototype for the
counterculture newspaper of the 1960s, ceases
publication. The paper's weekly circulation which
had been 90,000 in 1965, had declined to about
2,500.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
09 Jul 1980
US
Two philanthropic organizations buy Harper's
magazine, saving it from extinction. The two
groups will operate the magazine as a non-profit
enterprise.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
29 Aug 1980
UK
A week-long strike by journalists at the Times of
London ends when the strikers accept
management's pay increase offer of 27 percent
over 18 months.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
22 Oct 1980
UK
Thomson Organization Ltd. announces that it is
offering the Times of London for sale, along with
its sister publication, The Sunday Times, and
three weekly supplements. If no buyer if found by
March 1981, the papers will be closed.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
13 Feb 1981
UK
Rupert Murdoch, the Australian press magnate
who owns newspapers in Australia, the US, and
Great Britain, purchases the Times of London
from the International Thomson Organization Ltd.
for $27 million.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
24 Jul 1981
US
Gannett Company, the nation's largest
newspaper chain, begins distributing the
prototype of a national daily newspaper, USA
Today. If successful, the paper will be the first
national daily in the US.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
16 Aug 1981
US
The Philadelphia Bulletin averts a shutdown when
eight unions vote to make a $4.9 million in
contract concessions sought by the newspaper's
management.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
22 Apr 1983
Germany
In Germany the bogus "Hitler Diaries" was
published by Stern Magazine. Stern magazine
announced the discovery of a 60 volume
personal diary written by Adolph Hitler. It turned
out to be a hoax.
http://timelines.ws May 2008
1985
US
A grand jury begins an anti-trust investigation
centering on Advance's role in the demise of the
Cleveland Press. Charges are never filed. [Note:
Advance is a newspaper conglomerate. - SM]
http://www.cjr.org January 2008
1986
Canada
Net advertising revenues for general magazines
rose from $198 million in 1986 to $260 million in
1994.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
1987
International
News Corp takes control Melbourne Herald and
Weekly Times, Australia's largest media group.
News Corp. becomes world's largest newspaper
publisher. News Corp. also purchases the South
China Morning Post, UK newspaper Today.
Murdoch now controls approximately sixty
percent of Australian newspapers and thirty-five
percent of UK newspapers.
http://www.cjr.org January 2007
Apr 1989
Poland
The newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza was created
as part of a deal between the Solidarity
movement and Communists for free
parliamentary elections. In 1999 Gazeta began
an IPO that valued its parent company, Agora SA,
at $521 million.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
1991
Russia
Pravda, which means "Truth," is infamous for
having been the mouthpiece of the communist
rulers of the Soviet Union. When Russian
President Boris Yeltsin closed the paper in 1991,
some former Pravda employees formed another
paper with the same name. Some other former
Pravda workers also founded an unaffiliated
website in 1999, which has a decidedly pro-
government stance, is suspicious of the
intentions of the west, and carries sensational
and tabloid-type stories.
http://worldnews.about.com/od/easterneurop
eand6/tp/RussiaNewspapers.htm March
2011
1992
Russia
The circulation of Pravda decreased by 85
percent between 1992 and 1994.
Harper's Index
1994
Canada
There are 108 daily newspapers in Canada with
an average paid daily circulation of 5 million,
providing for a penetration of 63 percent of
Canadian homes. Daily newspapers receive
over 13 percent of the dollars spent on
advertising. In 1994 total advertising revenue for
all daily newspapers in Canada was $1.1 billion,
a loss of more than 25 percent over a 5-year
period - the most significant revenue loss of all
the major media. National advertising accounted
for 30 percent of the total.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
1995
Sweden
Metro International, a Swedish firm, pioneered
free daily newspapers supported by advertising.
http://timelines.ws October 2006
1995
US
U.S. population continues to increase, but
newspaper readership declines.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1996
US
There is a 1 in 3 chance that an American with a
1994 B.A. in journalism was unemployed or
working in public relations or advertising by
1996.
Harper's Index
21 Sep 1996
Brazil
In Brazil the first magazine dedicated to blacks,
Raca Brasil, sold out 200,000 copies in 5 days.
http://timelines.ws June 2011
1997
Canada
Under the terms of the 1994 General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the United States,
through the World Trade Organization (WTO),
challenged Canada's use of the Excise Tax Act
to block "split-run" magazines from entering
Canada. The WTO rules that Canada's use of its
excise law is in violation of GATT rules and
cannot be used. Canada appealed against the
decision. The World Trade Organization (WTO)
ruled against Canada's appeal on "split-run"
magazines and states that Canada's use of its
excise law is inconsistent with GATT rules. The
panel also overturns the earlier ruling that
Canada's use of postal subsidies for periodicals
was justified and gives Canada six months to
comply with the ruling.
http://www.media-awareness.ca/english
September 2007
1997
US
2,600 U.S. newspapers have Internet sites or dial-
up connections.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
1997
US
25,000 Turkish troops crossed the Iraqi border in
May 1997 to attacks Kurds. None of the top 10
US newspapers gave the story front-page
coverage.
Harper's Index
31 Mar 1998
Egypt
A sweeping press ban forbade publishing
houses from printing in tax-free zones. This
amounted to a temporary de facto ban for over
50 publications that printed in the Nasr City tax-
free zone outside of Cairo.
http://timelines.ws March 2007
1999
Canada
After months of debate within Canada and
negotiations with the U.S., the Foreign Publishers
Advertising Services Act, is passed in the House
of Commons. The bill aims to keep "split-runs"
(Canadian editions of U.S. magazines) out of
Canada. In May, the stipulations of the legislation
are eased to avoid a trade war. Originally, the
Canadian publishing industry demanded that no
more than 10 per cent of Canadian advertising
be permitted in American-owned magazines; the
U.S. persistently quoted 25 per cent. The
changes allow for 12 per cent of Canadian
advertising in American-owned split-runs in the
first year, 15 per cent in the second, and 18 per
cent thereafter.
http://www.media-awareness.ca/english
August 2006
1999
US
Number of U.S. daily newspapers drops to 1483.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August 206
1999
US
The total circulation of US daily newspapers was
56 million.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
Apr 2000
Iran
The judiciary, following the adoption of a new
press law, bans the publication of 16 reformist
newspapers.
BBC
31 Jul 2000
Canada
CanWest Global Communications Corp. gained
control of a huge chunk of Hollinger Inc. in a
monster deal worth over $3.2 billion. Canada's
newest and second-largest private national TV
network, CanWest Global, was now the biggest
owner of newspapers. The Winnipeg-based
broadcasting company took control of more than
200 publications, including 14 major dailies,
numerous Internet sites and a 50 per cent share
in Hollinger's flagship newspaper, the National
Post. Media concentration, once frowned upon,
seems to have become a national goal.
Publishers argue that if Canada doesn't get on
board it will get left behind in the new global
economy. "We don't intend to be one of the
corpses lying beside the information highway,"
says Israel Asper, chairman of CanWest Global.
In Vancouver, where the merger results in
CanWest owning two main TV stations and the
city's two major newspapers, readers and
viewers voice concern about the shrinking
diversity of opinion.
http://archives.cbc.ca July 2007
2003
Germany
The German federal government forbids
acquisition of Berliner Zeitung, Berliner Kurier
and Sächsische Zeitung by Holtzbrinck from
Bertelsmann-controlled Gruner + Jahr.
http://www.ketupa.net September 2007
2003
New Zealand
Fairfax pays $1bn for most publishing interests of
New Zealand's Independent Newspapers Ltd.
(INL), at that time around 5017040066wned by News
[Corp].
http://www.ketupa.net January 2007
2004
US
A study by the Pew Center for Excellence in
Journalism, titled The State of News Media, 2004,
reported that twenty-two companies now control
70 percent of daily newspaper circulation.
Future of Media, P. 43
2004
US
Newspapers today have 2,200 fewer full-time
newsroom employees than they did in 1990 -
while ad revenues rose by 60 percent and profits
jumped by 207 percent during the same period,
according to the Pew study.
Future of Media, P. 43
06 Oct 2005
Japan
In Japan the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper was
awarded compensation from a small Internet firm
that used its news headlines without permission,
in a first-of-a-kind ruling in the country. The
Intellectual Property High Court, a special branch
court of the Tokyo High Court, ordered Digital
Alliance Corp. to pay about 237,700 yen (2,000
dollars) to the Yomiuri.
http://timelines.ws October 2008
2007
Canada
Currently, only four corporations - CanWest,
Quebecor, Torstar, and Gesca - control 72
percent of the daily newspaper circulation,
according to the Standing Committee on
Transport and Communication.
Epoch Times Canada, 25-31 January, 2008
2007
Canada
Quebecor Media was poised Friday to become
the biggest publisher of newspapers in Canada
after it struck a friendly deal to acquire the
Osprey Media Income Fund and its 54
newspapers. The deal is worth $517 million. After
the close of trading on Thursday, the companies
said Quebecor would pay $7.25 per share for
Osprey. Osprey units gained 34 cents to close at
$7.26 on Friday. The offer includes a 30.6 per
cent premium on the March 5 closing prices of
Osprey's unit. On that day, the company said it
was reviewing its strategic options, possibly
including a sale. The board of Osprey has
recommended that unitholders accept the
Quebecor buyout offer. The Ontario Teachers'
Pension Plan and Scotia Merchant Capital Corp.
have already agreed to tender the 53.9 per cent
stake in the fund they hold.
CBC 1 June 2007
2009
US
NY Times breaks 157-year tradition: runs a
display ad on page 1.
http://timelines.ws January 2010
21 Jan 2009
UK
Ex-KGB billionaire, Alexander Lebedev, 49, is
buying a controlling stake in the venerable
Evening Standard for £1, assuming the
unprofitable paper's debts.
http://www.mapreport.com/citysubtopics/post
_soviet-b-m.html February 2011
Jul 2009
Latvia
Latvia's leading newspaper, Diena, along with
sister publication Dienas Bizness, was bought by
Luxembourg based Nedela S.A. in a highly
clandestine transaction. The deal was initially
structured as a loan to Tralmaks' company
Nedela, allowing it to buy the two papers from
then-owner, Sweden's Bonnier Business Press.
The loan was later restructured, placing the
Rowlands as the new owners. The Rowland
Capital family office runs an asset management
business, Blackfish Capital Management, a
London based company.
http://timelines.ws March 2010
06 Dec 2010
US
Beginning today, The Augusta Chronicle will start
phasing in a digital-subscription model for
readers to access its content online. For a limited
time readers will be able to access up to 100
"premium" stories - those that also appear in
print - free of charge on the paper's website,
chronicle.augusta.com. After 100 premium
stories are accessed, the reader will be asked to
subscribe. The homepage, breaking news, photo
galleries, obits, most blogs and most section
fronts will remain available online free of charge.
The price for a digital subscription is $2.95 per
month for current print subscribers, $6.95 per
month for digital only.
http://www.editorandpublisher.com/Headlines
/the-augusta-chronicle-launches-digital-
subscription-model-63382-.aspx December
2010
16 Feb 2011
US
Apple Inc. announced a subscription system for
buying newspapers and magazines on iPhone
and iPad applications on Tuesday, making it
easier for publishers to mine the popular mobile
devices for more revenue.
http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2011/02/1
6/apple-magazine-newspaper.html February
2011
01 May 2011
Belarus
The Belarusian Ministry of Information sues two
major independent newspapers in the country -
“Nasha Niva” and “Narodnaya Volya” - in order to
shut them down. Voicing their protest the
members of the Belorussian Association of
Journalists promise to "do all in [their] power for
Belarus not to lose these voices of liberty, that
are symbolic for the whole nation".
http://humanrightshouse.org/noop/page.php?
p=Articles/16352 May 2011
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