Start Date
Place
Notes
Source
1873
Germany
The idea of transmitting an image likely began in
1873 with the discovery that the conductivity of
selenium changed when exposed to light.
Selenium cells were used in early test devices
but the state of selenium changed too slowly for
these devices to work very well.
http://timeline.ws January 2007
1884
Germany
Paul Nipkow in Germany received a patent,
which, while it used selenium cells, embodied
many of the main elements of modern television
design.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
01 Dec 1922
France
Edward Belin demonstrated a rudimentary form
of "tele-vision" in Paris. He succeeded in
transmitting light a few feet.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
1927
US
Philo Farnsworth demonstrates the first television
for potential investors by broadcasting the image
of a dollar sign. Farnsworth receives backing and
applies for a patent, but ongoing patent battles
with RCA will prevent Farnsworth from earning
his share of the million-dollar industry his
invention will create.
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/grogan/thes
is/Timeline2.html July 2010
1930
UK
The British Rediffusion Company developed in
the 1930s twisted pair cable to carry television
signals to subscriber homes beyond the London
area and continued to use similar technology in
the 1950s.
http://wiki.media-
culture.org.au/index.php/Convergence_and_
Television_-_Pay_TV November 2010
1930
UK
The emergence of pay TV is known from the
1970s; however, the history of pay TV via cable
can be tracked as early as the 1930s. The British
Rediffusion Company developed in the 1930s
twisted pair cable to carry television signals to
describer homes beyond the London area and
continued to use similar technology in the 1950s.
Pay TV, unlike traditional free-to-air broadcasting
has been used to deliver television services to
home viewers on a payment-for-service basis.
Pay TV advantages includes more channels and
therefore greater consumer choice and in many
cases pay TV cater for consumers with special
interests by broadcasting so called niche
channels and programs which is not profitable for
the free-to-air networks. As a result, pay TV
provides a greater choice of both programs and
channels than network programming.
http://www.wiki.media-
culture.org.au/index.php/Convergence_and_
Television_-_Pay_TV December 2010
12 Feb 1931
Japan
Japan's first television broadcast was a baseball
game.
http:timelines.ws October 2006
1936
International
There were about 2,000 television sets in use
around the world.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1936
US
A major factor in the delay in the US [of the
introduction of TV] was that RCA so controlled
the patents that the FCC was worried about the
survival of the other firms that could make TV
equipment. It therefore stood in the path of RCA's
development of TV from 1936 to 1941. The FCC
was trying to prevent the AT&T telephone
monopoly from being reproduced by RCA in this
area. By 1941 the necessary agreements had
been struck, but the US entry into the war that
year halted further developments.
Media Studies, P. 795
1940
Russia
There were 400 television sets in USSR.
http://www.caslon.com November 2006
1941
US
23 TV stations were operating in America, but
WW II put development of the medium on the
back burner.
http://www.trivia-library.com August 2006
1941
US
FCC sets U.S. TV standards.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2007
1943
US
Lady Bird Johnson purchased KTBC, a low-
powered radio station in Texas. The Federal
Communications Commission, which reviewed
all broadcast-license transfers, was close to
being abolished. Congressman Lyndon Johnson
used his political influence in both Congress and
the White House to prevent that from happening.
In 1945 the FCC OK'd KTBC's request to
quintuple its power, which cast its signal over 63
counties.
http://timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML
January 2011
1944
Brazil
In the second half of the 1940's, many wealthy,
(and others not so wealthy, but technically skilled),
people made some kind of effort to bring
television to Brazil. The honor finally went to one
of the most controversial figures in Brazilian
history, Mr. Assis Chateaubriand, a very powerful
media tycoon in Brazil from the mid 20's to the
late 60's. In the late 40's his empire had 34
newspapers in different cities, 36 radio stations
and the most important Brazilian national
magazine. He decided that he wanted to own a
TV station in 1944, when he visited the US for the
first time.
http://www.earlytelevision.org/brazil_tv_histor
y.html June 2011
22 May 1944
US
Broadcasting reports single ownership of five TV
stations is permitted by FCC, up from former limit
of three.
http://jeff560.tripod.com/chronotv.html
November 2010
1945
US
Estimated 10,000 television sets in US.
http://www.ketupa.net January 2009
1945
US
Gallup Poll asks, "Do you know what television is?
" Many don't.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2007
1946
US
6000 television sets are sold in the US.
http://members.tripod.com/jonchew_produce
r/History_of_Television.htm January 2011
1946
US
CBS demonstrates its UHF-band color TV
system to the FCC. The system is incompatible
with the existing black-and-white standard,
though company officials have designed an
inexpensive converter for the countries 250,000
black-and-white sets.
http://members.tripod.com/jonchew_produce
r/History_of_Television.htm January 2011
1946
US
Dual Television Network Rule enacted,
prohibiting a major network from buying another
major network.
http://www.pbs.org/now/
politics/mediatimeline.html June 2007
1946
US
In 1946, there were six television stations in the
U.S.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1946
US
Louis-Conn heavyweight title fight is telecast to
100,000 viewers via closed circuit.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1946
US
There were 6,500 television receivers (sets) sold
in US.
http://www.ketupa.net February 2009
1947
US
FCC decreed a national standard for television
receivers.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1948
US
FCC put a freeze on new television channel
allocations until the problem of station-to-station
interference is resolved.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1949
US
Harry Warner declares that Warner Bros. will
introduce television production at its Burbank
studios as soon as the FCC approves the
studio's purchase of the Thackery television
stations in Los Angeles. The government,
however, puts a moratorium on the licensing of
TV stations that is not lifted until 1952, and
Thackery TV pulls out of the deal.
http://www.pictureshowman.com/timeline_19
40_1949.cfm February 2011
1949
US
The United States has 98 television stations.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
Mar 1949
Canada
The Canadian parliament authorized a television
service, spurred by the developments in the US
that could be viewed across the border. The
recently appointed Royal Commission on
National Development in the Arts, Letters and
Sciences (the Massey Commission) is to
consider implementation.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2006
02 Mar 1949
US
Station WPTZ TV began thrice-weekly afternoon
broadcasts of educational programs. The
station's owner, Philco Corporation, donated 20
large-screen television receivers to schools in its
corporate hometown Philadelphia to receive the
Operation Blackboard service, administered by
the Philadelphia Board of Education.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1950
Europe
European broadcasters fixed a common
television picture standard of 625 lines. By the
1970s, virtually all nations in the world used 625-
line service, except for the U.S., Japan, and
some others that adopted the 525-line U.S.
standard.
http://www.civilization.ca September 2006
1950
US
CBS broadcasts in color to 25 television sets.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu October
2006
1950
US
Over 100 television stations were in operation in
the U.S.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1950
US
The FCC adopts the CBS color TV standard,
changes its mind three years later.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu September
2007
13 Mar 1950
US
NBC bars leftist singer Paul Robeson from
appearing on Eleanor Roosevelt's television
program.
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Apr 1950
US
NBC Research reports that the US has 101
television stations operating and an estimated 4,
845,000 TV sets installed.
Merritt, The Fifties
04 Jun 1950
US
Boston University President Daniel Marsh tells
graduating seniors that 'if the television craze
continues with the present level of programs, we
are destined to have a nation of morons.'
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Sep 1950
Brazil
Chateaubriand's Sao Paulo TV station PRF3 TV
Tupi channel 3 was officially inaugurated, with the
blessings of the city's catholic bishop and the
transmission of a variety show at 9:00 pm.
http://www.earlytelevision.org/brazil_tv_histor
y.html June 2011
11 Oct 1950
US
FCC votes to let CBS go ahead with colour
television broadcasts starting November 20.
CBS says it will have three hours of colour shows
on the air daily within two months.
Merritt, The Fifties
22 Nov 1950
US
Federal Trade Commission announces an
investigation of the 'child appeal' television
advertising campaign sponsored by the
American Television Dealers and Manufacturers
Association following numerous protests from
churches, organizations and individuals.
Merritt, The Fifties
20 Dec 1950
US
CBS asks 1,400 regular employees to sign
loyalty agreements. [Note: presumably to ensure
they weren't communists. - SM]
Merritt, The Fifties
25 Dec 1950
US
The first Disney TV special, One Hour in
Wonderland airs on NBC, sponsored by the
Coca-Cola Company (cost US$100,000). Walt
Disney and several Disney cartoon characters
make their TV debut. Walt's daughter Sharon
also appears. The show previews portions of the
film Alice in Wonderland. About 20 million
viewers watch the show.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1950.ht
m November 2010
1951
US
1.5 million TV sets in U.S., a tenfold jump in one
year.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1951
US
Charles Ginsburg led the research team at
Ampex Corporation in developing the first
practical videotape recorder (VTR). In 1951, the
first video tape recorder (VTR) captured live
images from television cameras by converting
the information into electrical impulses and
saving the information onto magnetic tape.
Ampex sold the first VTR for $50,000 in 1956.
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blv
ideo.htm February 2011
1951
US
FCC approves test in Chicago of Phonevision
subscription TV, $1 for a movie.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
22 Mar 1951
US
FCC proposes expanding US TV system from its
present 107 stations to 2,000 of which 10 1ll
be reserved for education.
Merritt, The FIfties
08 May 1951
US
American Federation of Radio Artists announces
that radio and TV figures accused of communist
sympathies may now file statements with the
union for inspection by employers.
Merritt, The Fifties
28 May 1951
US
The Supreme Court upholds the right of the FCC
to approve the CBS colour system over its RCA
competitor.
Merritt, The Fifties
26 Jul 1951
US
FCC eases its 34 month ban on opening of new
television stations and changes in operating
facilities.
Merritt, The Fifties
1952
UK
Television coverage 81 percent of UK.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1952
US
Estimated 22 million television sets in US
homes.
http://www.ketupa.net July 2007
1952
US
FCC ends freeze, sets VHF band, opens UHF
band, and reserves education channels.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2006
1952
US
Large screen television systems are already
installed in 75 theatres across America, with a
further 122 reportedly on the way. In fact, fewer
than 100 in all were ever equipped and rarely
used. The phenomenon was already dying out.
Paramount and General Precision Laboratories
ceased production of intermediate film television
systems for cinema use. Hollywood was turning
to other ideas, such as wide-screen, 3-D and
stereophonic sound.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1952
US
The broadcasting industry has often staved off
government action with good promises. The
industry's code can be called voluntary self-
regulation only by the greatest stretch of the
imagination. The 1952 NAB Television Code, for
example, was adopted only a few months ahead
of threatened congressional investigation.
Skonia, Television and Society, P. 61
1952
US
Zenith proposes pay-TV system using punched
cards.
http://www.ketupa.net July 2007
07 Jan 1952
US
NBC drops actor Philip Loeb, accused of being
a Communist, from the TV comedy The
Goldbergs.
Merritt, The Fifties
13 Apr 1952
US
FCC ends its 2 year ban on construction of new
television stations due to introduction of UHF
(ultra high frequency) broadcasting.
Merritt, The FIfties
30 Apr 1952
US
National Bureau of Standards and MIT announce
a new method of bouncing radio signals off the
ionosphere, permitting long-distance television
broadcasts.
Merritt, The Fifties
Jul 1952
US
The Screen Actors Guild (president: Ronald
Reagan) granted MCA a seven-year waiver from
its prohibition on agents acting as producers,
permitting rapid growth of the company's
television production subsidiary, Revue.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
25 Jul 1952
US
FCC authorizes construction of the nation's first
four education TV stations, to be located in N.Y,
Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester.
Merritt, The Fifties
23 Sep 1952
US
A heavyweight boxing bout between Rocky
Marciano and Jersey Joe Walcott was screened
to paying audiences on large-screen television in
49 cinemas in 31 US cities.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2007
1953
Australia
Television Act establishes ABC as national
television authority.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1953
Germany
In 1953 there were only 10,000 [television] sets in
West Germany; by 1962 there were 7 million.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cinema-of-
Germany January 2007
1953
Germany
Werner Hoefer (d.1997 at 84) began his TV
roundtable discussion "Der Internationale
Fruehschoppen." He led the show until 1987.
Revelations of his work as a Nazi forced the end
of his career as the show's host.
http://timelines.ws May 2007
1953
US
CBS developed a workable color system years
before their rival, RCA, but it was incompatible
with the huge number of black and white sets in
homes around the country. CBS poured a lot of
money into their new color system, but it was all
for nothing. RCA, motivated by CBS's work on a
color system, bet on their own color system. They
soon had a color system that would work on
monochrome monitors too. After RCA
demonstrated their system, the NTSC adopted it
for commercial broadcasting in 1953.
http://www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/tv_grow
s_up/colortv.html January 2011
1953
US
Reversing 1950 decision, FCC approved
industry endorsed compatible NTSC color
television system.
Billboard, 28 May 1983
02 Jan 1953
US
NBC board of directors in NY names Frank
White as president of the network, while David
Sarnoff becomes chairman of the board.
Merritt, The Fifites
20 Jan 1953
International
First US telecast transmitted to Canada from
Buffalo, New York, USA.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1950.ht
m November 2010
Apr 1953
US
FCC lifted its ban on allocation of new television
broadcasting frequencies.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2008
25 May 1953
US
The first non-commercial educational television
station was founded in Houston, Texas.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1950.ht
m November 2010
10 Jun 1953
US
First Catholic mass televised from a studio is
broadcast by station WBZ-TV in Boston.
Merritt, The FIfties
28 Aug 1953
Japan
Nippon Television broadcasts Japan's first
television show, including its first TV
advertisement
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1950.ht
m November 2010
11 Sep 1953
US
TV station KSBW of Salinas, California, and
KMBY of Monterrey, California begin
broadcasting from a single transmitter atop
Mount Toro. They are the first stations to share
the same line and frequency.
Merritt, The Fifties
30 Oct 1953
US
Station WPTZ-TV in Philadelphai preents the first
color telecast on a closed circuit local station.
Merritt, The Fifties
1954
Bulgaria
In 1954, a team at the Machine and
Electrotechnics Institute in Sofia (today called the
Technical University of Sofia) started
experimental television broadcasting with two
antennas (one for sound and one for image) on
the roof of a building near the Vasil Levski
monument in the city, after having previously
conducted successful cable test transmissions.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_in_Bul
garia May 2011
1954
Europe
Eurovision is the name given to a network of
communication channels founded in the 1950s
that links state TV stations across Europe. The
system minimizes the cost to each member of
transmitting pan-European news and sports
footage. In an effort to scare up programming to
justify the network, members thought up the Song
Contest and the first was held in Switzerland in
1956.
http://www.balticsworldwide.com/eurovision_
history.htm June 2007
1954
US
54 percent of American homes have television
sets.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1954
US
In U.S., television revenue surpassed radio
revenue.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
25 Mar 1954
US
RCA manufactured its first color TV set and
began mass production. The 1953 RCA design
for color TV was adopted as the national
standard. The 12" screen TV was priced at
$1000. Westinghouse had introduced a color
model a few weeks earlier, but only 1 set was
sold in the first month.
http://timelines.ws May 2007
26 Aug 1954
US
In the first instance of a US network taking an
editorial stand on a controversial issue, CBS
president Frank Stanton appeals for public
support 'in efforts to lift the curtain of silence that
has descended on the forthcoming [Senate
McCarthy] hearings.'
Merritt, The FIfties
1955
Canada
CBC Television was available to 66 percent of
the population.
http://www.cbc.radio.ca/history August 2006
1955
UK
BBC television devotes 10 percent of schedule
to arts programmes and 25 percent to children.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2006
1955
UK
Television available to 91 percent of UK
population.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1955
UK
Television viewing equals radio listening in the
UK, according to BBC research: the average
evening 'reach' (proportion of the population
viewing or listening) is 14.9 per cent for television,
14.7 per cent for radio. The television audience is
now estimated at 12.1m, although there are still
24.1m adults in homes with radio but not
television. [First Quarter]
http://www.terramedia.co.uk December 2006
1955
US
Research shows TV viewing correlates inversely
with education, income.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
02 Feb 1955
US
Senate Commerce Committee aide Harry M>
Plotkin submits a report criticizing the
broadcasting industry and urging a Justice
Department probe of possible anti-trust action
against TV networks.
Merritt, The Fifties
24 Feb 1955
US
US Court of Appeal in Washington invalidates a
Federal Communications Commission ruling
limiting TV station ownership by a single
individual or company to five.
Merritt, The FIfties
06 Apr 1955
US
Zenith Radio Corporation denounces CBS for
'unwarranted censorship' and withdraws as
sponsor of Omnibus when CBS refuses to let
Zenith air a commercial for Phonevision, a
subscription TV service opposed by the
networks.
Merritt, The Fifties
06 Jun 1955
US
RCA Chairman David Sarnoff opposes
subscription TV service in a statement filed with
the FCC.
Merrritt, The Fifties
1956
France
Henri de France developed the SÉCAM
(sequential color with memory) procedure. It was
adopted in France. [Note: ended up being a 625
line standard. - SM]
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1956
US
DuMont goes out of business and ABC earns its
place as one of the "big three" networks.
http://www.parentstv.org/ptc/facts/tvtimeline.a
sp November 2010
1956
US
Several Louisiana congressmen promoted a bill
to ban all television programs that portrayed
blacks and whites together in a sympathetic light.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1956
US
Television in 71 percent of US households.
http://www.caslon.com May 2008
1956
US
Videotape is introduced by Ampex Corp. at a
CBS-TV affiliates' session. Most TV shows at the
time are produced by the kinescope process.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
14 Jun 1956
US
NBC president Robert Sarnoff, echoing his CBS
counterpart Frank Stanton, denies government
charges that NBC and CBS, the nation's two
largest TV networks have an 'economic
stranglehold' on the industry.
Merritt, The Fifties
21 Jun 1956
US
National Telefilm Association Inc. announces
plans to launch the fourth US TV network in
October.
Merritt, The FIfties
1957
UK
Television for UK schools starts.
http://www.ketupa.net January 2007
1957
US
NBC set up an alliance with MCA, and the
creation of serious live TV theater in New York
faded away as activity shifted to the West Coast.
http://www.trivia-library.com January 2008
1957
US
The "Telemovies" system was launched in 1957
in Bartlesville, Oklahoma by Video Independent
Theatres (VIT). Telemovies offered a first-run
movie channel and a rerun movie channel. The
movies originated from a downtown studio, and,
in the case of the first-run selections, were shown
concurrently in VIT's local movie theaters.
Telemovies charged a flat monthly rate rather
than a per-program fee. After undergoing several
changes, including the addition of community
antenna service, the system ceased operations
in summer 1958.
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?
entrycode=paytelevisio December 2010
04 Jan 1957
US
Alliance of Television Film Producers agrees to
adopt an ethical production code of the National
Association of Radio and Television
Broadcasters.
Merritt, The FIfties
15 Mar 1957
US
Actress Judy Garland sues CBS for $1,393,333
on charges that the network broke and
agreement for her to appear in five TV shows
between 1956 and 1960.
Merritt, The Fifties
18 Sep 1957
US
FCC announces that it will consider application
from TV stations to test subscription TV telecast
experimentally over a three-year period.
Merritt, The Fifties
1958
Russia
There were 2.5 million television sets in the
USSR.
http://www.caslon.com January 2007
26 May 1958
US
Senate Commerce Committee approves a bill
granting up to $1 million to each state for
educational TV facilities.
Merritt, The Fifties
1959
Costa RIca
René Picado Esquivel became the pioneer and
visionary of television in Costa Rica. On August 5,
1959 a contract was signed with the ABC
network which eventually gave birth to television
on Costa Rica with the founding of Channel 7 by
Señor Picado. At first he had to make do with
second-hand equipment that was donated by the
ABC network. All of the equipment had to come
by boat and be reassembled once it arrived in
Costa Rica.
http://www.liveincostarica.com/blog/2010/05/t
he-history-of-television-in-costa-rica.html July
2011
1960
Bulgaria
In 1960, a powerful 20 kilowatt transmitter was
installed at Botev Peak, covering a large area of
the country.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_in_Bul
garia May 2011
1960
Canada
In Canada, an experimental pay TV system
owned by the Famous Players movie chain had
been tested in the Toronto suburb of Etobicoke
from 1960 to 1965.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 189
1960
Germany
2 million TV sets in Germany in 1960.
Grun, Timetables, P. 547
1960
International
There were about 100 million television-sets in
operation worldwide.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1960
US
More than 500 American television stations are
broadcasting.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2007
1960
US
Ninety percent of American homes now owned
television-sets and America becomes the world's
first "television society".
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
01 Jun 1960
US
National Council of Churches releases a report
assailing the pathological preoccupation with sex
and violence in current films and TV.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
09 Jun 1960
US
ABC TV announces the signing of a five-year
contract to televise games of the new American
Football League.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
13 Oct 1960
US
A federal jury acquits Thurman A. Whiteside of
charges of conspiring with ex-FCC
Commissioner Richard A. Mack to award a
Miami TV station to a National Airlines
subsidiary.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1961
Canada
Non-CBC-affiliated private television arrived in
Canada in 1961 with the licensing of CTV
network stations.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 137-8
1961
US
The Dodd hearings in the U.S. began, examining
the television industry's "rampant and
opportunistic use of violence".
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
22 Sep 1961
US
Newton Minow, Chairman of the FCC urges
American TV networks to produce high quality
children's programs to replace the current 'dull,
gray, and insipid' ones.
Nelson and Parker, The Sxties
1962
UK
First live television from US by satellite.
http://www.ketupa.net September 2006
1962
US
A survey indicated that 90 percent of American
households had television sets; 13 percent have
more than one.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
11 Jan 1962
US
In a speech to the National Press Club, FCC
Chairman Newton Minow says that more TV
stations - probably using ultra-high-frequency
(UHF) - are needed to give US viewers and
adequate choice of channels.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
19 Jan 1962
US
Charles van Doren and nine other TV quiz show
winners charged in 1960 with falsely testifying
that they had never been given advance
questions and answers on the defunct shows 21
and Tic Tax Dough are given suspended
sentences new New York by a Special Sessions
Court.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
24 Jan 1962
US
A hearing on TV violence and its possible effect
on juvenile behavior is held by the Senate
Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
29 Mar 1962
UK
The Independent Television Authority's offer to
finance an enquiry into the use of television as a
means of fostering moral concepts and attitudes
was reported to UK parliament, leading to
formation of the Noble Committee and its five-
year research program.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
29 Jun 1962
US
On 29 June 1962, two years after its petition for
an experimental license had been filed with the
FCC, a Phonevision system was launched in
Hartford, Connecticut. By this point, Phonevision
had become a joint venture between RKO and
Zenith. Phonevision programming was broadcast
on WHCT, a UHF station licensed specifically for
the Phonevision trial. Although it never made a
profit, the Hartford experiment ran through 31
January 1969 and the system won FCC approval
for nationwide use in 1970.
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?
entrycode=paytelevisio December 2010
26 Oct 1962
US
The Television Bureau of Advertising estimates
that the number of US homes with at least 1 TV
set has increased from less than one million in
1949 to over 50 million in 1962.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
06 Dec 1962
US
A special report by FCC investigators calls for
expanded federal supervision of US TV network
programming.
Nelson and Parker, The Sixties
1964
US
California's voters make pay TV illegal, an effort
led by the movie and TV industries, concerned
about lost profits. The Supreme Court rules the
attempt unconstitutional, but Subscription
Television, Inc., by then loses $10 million and
goes bankrupt.
http://members.tripod.com/jonchew_produce
r/History_of_Television.htm January 2011
Jul 1964
US
Subscription Television Inc. (STV) was launched
in July 1964 and continued through November of
that year--a short-lived but nonetheless highly
touted pay TV system. STV was the heir (through
a complicated series of stock transactions) to
Skiatron's over-the-air system. The two major
figures behind STV were Skiatron's Matthew Fox
and former adman and NBC executive Sylvester
L. (Pat) Weaver. STV had built wire networks in
San Francisco and Los Angeles, and the
company planned eventually to wire major cities
as well as to incorporate existing CATV systems.
While STV's three channels offered a mixture of
sports, movies, children's programs and
theatrical performances--typical of most pay TV
systems--it was baseball that provided the
foundation for its programming.
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?
entrycode=paytelevisio December 2010
Jul 1964
US
The very first prototype for a plasma display
monitor was invented in July 1964 at the
University of Illinois by professors Donald Bitzer
and Gene Slottow, and then graduate student
Robert Willson. However, it was not until after the
advent of digital and other technologies that
successful plasma televisions became possible.
http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions
/a/plasmaTV.htm January 2011
1965
US
FCC rules bring structure to cable television.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu march
2007
1966
US
ABC becomes an all-color network.
http://members.tripod.com/jonchew_produce
r/History_of_Television.htm January 2011
1966
US
FCC blocks cable television wiring in large cities.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
1967
International
Leonard Marks, the director of the United States
Information Agency, reminded his listeners at the
national press club in early 1967 that the number
of nations with television already had reached
104, and the number of sets around the world
totaled 182 million and was climbing
spectacularly.
Schiller, Mass, P. 12
1967
US
There were 770 television stations in the US.
http://www.trivia-library.com February 2007
1968
International
World television ownership neared 200 million.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1968
US
The U.S. television industry now had annual
revenues of about $2 billion and derived heavy
support from tobacco advertisers.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1968
US
There were 78 million TV sets in the U.S.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2007
1969
Russia
Television in 30 million USSR households.
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
1969
US
An estimated 97 percent of US households have
TV.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1970
At present, TV is a service only during a crisis.
McLuhan, Culture is our Business, P. 104
(1970)
1970
Subscription TV means audience participation in
programming without benefit of ratings or
sponsors. Instead of a package deal, the viewer
will get service. Service as a matter of course
and not a matter of crisis.
McLuhan, Culture is our Business, P. 104
(1970)
1970
TV is not only an X-ray 'zerothruster' or fire god
like Zoroaster, but it is entirely subliminal in its
impact, as is the case with all other non media.
McLuhan, Culture is our Business, P. 208
(1970)
1970
US
The FCC's Fin-Syn ruling limited the financial
interest television networks can have in
syndicated programming. As a result, Viacom is
formed after CBS spins off its television-
programming arm.
http://www.cjr.org May 2007
1971
US
Viacom formed when FCC rules force CBS to
spin off some of its cable TV and program-
syndication operations.
http://www.ketupa.net January 2007
1972
International
The Munich Olympics were broadcast live,
drawing an estimated 450 million viewers
worldwide.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1972
US
FCC ends six-year ban on installing cable TV in
large cities. New FCC rules lead to community
access channels.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu June 2008
1972
US
In response to growing concern over TV's effect
on children, NAB and the networks agree to
reduce commercial time in children's weekend
fare from 16 minutes an hour to 12 minutes an
hour (effective Jan. 1, 1973). Revisions in the
code do away with tie-ins, the mention of
products in a program context, and with the use
of program hosts or cartoon characters as the
commercial pitchman.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
1972
US
In the early 1970s the US cable industry was still
operating on the margins of the American
broadcasting industry. Time Inc., the magazine
publisher, had bought up a number of cable
systems in New York City, including a company
run by Charles Dolan and Gerald Levin. The two
men had struck on the idea of driving cable
penetration nationwide and with an all-movie-and-
sports channel. The new channel would be called
Home Box Office.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 188
1972
US
The most notable early pay-cable operation was
Home Box Office, which launched in 1972 by
providing cable systems with pay programming
via microwave relays in the Northeast. When
HBO took its program service to satellite in 1975,
it gained the potential to reach virtually any cable
system in the United States. Other pay-cable
program services were to follow, including
Showtime, The Movie Channel, and others.
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?
entrycode=paytelevisio December 2010
1972
US
Time Inc. buys Home Box Office (HBO) from
Charles Dolan. HBO transmits first programming
to 365 subscribers in Wilkes-Barre, PA.
http://www.cjr.org July 2008
1973
International
U.S. [TV] producers sold nearly $200 million
dollars worth of programs overseas, more than
the rest of the world combined.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1975
International
A study indicated that the average American
child during this decade will have spent 10,800
hours in school by the time he or she is 18, but
will have seen an average 20,000 hours of
television. Studies also estimate that, by the time
he is 75, the average American male will have
spent nine entire years of his life watching
television; the average British male will have
spent eight years watching.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1975
US
First launched in 1972, HBO did not become a
success until 1975, when it became available to
US cable systems via satellite - thanks ironically
to Canada's Anik satellite, which was used to
beam HBO into American markets.
Fraser, Free, P. 188
Dec 1975
Canada
In December 1975 the CRTC issued its verdict :
there was 'little enthusiasm' for pay TV in Canada
and therefore it would not grant any licenses. The
decision was a setback for the Canadian cable
industry, which felt intensely frustrated watching
HBO drive cable cash flows in the United States
while regulatory foot-dragging delayed pay TV's
commercial launch in Canada.
Fraser, Free, P. 190
1976
International
The Olympics, broadcast from Montreal, drew an
estimated 1 billion viewers worldwide.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1976
Italy
Between 1976 and 1980, profiting by a flaw in
the law that guaranteed to the Government the
monopoly of TV broadcasting, hundreds of
private TV stations and networks were founded.
The comics market was totally disrupted: TV
offered programs of all genres, free of charge, 24
hour a day.
http://www.dandare.info/history/italy.htm
November 2010
1976
US
Cable television in 15 percent of US households.
http://'www.ketupa.net May 2007
1976
US
Court rules that "family hour" on television is
unconstitutional.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2007
1976
US
FCC reserves line 21 on television sets for
closed captions.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu
1977
Canada
In 1977 the CRTC declined again to license pay
TV services in Canada.
Fraser, Free, P. 191
1977
South Africa
South Africans saw television for the first time on
May 10, as test transmissions begin from the
state-backed South Africa Broadcast Co. The
Pretoria government yielded to public pressure
after years of banning television as being morally
corrupting. Half the broadcasts were in English -
half in Afrikaans.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1977
US
As a TV miniseries, Roots draws 130 million
viewers over 8 nights.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2007
1977
US
Both wired and over-the-air pay television
systems were launched in the 1970s. In 1977,
over-the-air systems were started in Newark, N.J.,
by Wometco-Blonder-Tongue (over station
WWHT) and in Corona (Los Angeles), California,
by Chartwell Communications (over station
KBSC). By 1980, eight others were in operation,
with an additional 16 stations authorized and
ready to launch. These over-the-air systems were
developing concurrently with satellite-delivered
cable program services, however, and were not
able to compete with the wired medium once it
became available in major urban areas.
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?
entrycode=paytelevisio December 2010
1978
US
98 percent of American households had
television sets, up from nine percent in 1950.
Seventy-eight percent of American households
had color televisions, up from 3.1 percent in
1964.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1978
US
Seventy-eight percent of American households
had color televisions, up from 3.1 percent in
1964.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1979
Australia
Murdoch diversifies by acquiring Ansett
Transport Industries which owns Melbourne TV
station, Channel 10. Australia modifies media
ownership laws to allow the deal. Critics call the
move "The Murdoch Amendments."
http://www.cjr.org August 2006
1979
Canada
Under request from the federal Department of
Communications in 1979 the CRTC initiated a
third inquiry, the Therrien Committee, which duly
reported in 1980, recommending that a
competitive industry be authorized. The
Department of Communications, with a mandate
broader than the cultural objectives of the CRTC,
has viewed pay TV as a means of stimulating
satellite usage and furthering development in
High Technology industries. Therrien's
recommendations were accepted by the CRTC
and the government.
http://www.thecandianencyclopedia.com
November 2010
1979
International
There were 300 million television sets in
operation worldwide.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1980
International
Also during the 1980s, in the U.S. and Germany,
laws and policies were enacted to preserve a
person's right to television in the event of financial
setback.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1980
US
MCA, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures
and Twentieth Century-Fox formed a US pay TV
service called Premiere to compete with Home
Box Office (HBO). The Department of Justice
antitrust section intervened, contending that the
project is an 'unlawful combination and
conspiracy' intended to harm potential
competitors, a view the federal courts upheld on
appeal. Premiere never went on the air.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2007
1980
US
The first 24-hour, all-news network, CNN, was
launched with 1.7 million subscribers.
http://www.cjr.org August 2006
1980
US
When CNN first went on the air in 1980, it had
only 1.7 million cable subscribers in the US. In its
first five years, CNN lost money. By the early
1990s, however, some 136 million viewers were
watching the all news channel.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 187
31 Jan 1980
US
CBS Inc. announces it has created a dvision to
manufacture produce and market programming
for new video technologies. CBS is the last of the
major television networks to enter the video field.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
12 May 1980
US
PBS airs the film Death of a Princess despite
protests from the Saudi Arabian government, the
State Department, members of Congress, and
Mobil Company (PBS receives large portions of
its funding from the government and Mobil, and
Mobil is a major partner in the Saudi oil industry).
The film which concerns the 1977 execution of a
Saudi princess for adultery, has been denounced
by the Saudis for distorting the facts and
slandering the Islamic religion.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
21 Jul 1980
US
Members of the Screen Actors Guild and the
American Federation of Television and Radio
Artists walk off their jobs in a dispute with film
studios and television networks. A key issue in
the strike is a dispute over money from pay
television, and sales of video cassettes and
disks.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
22 Jul 1980
US
The Federal Communications Commission votes
4-3 to eliminate two major restrictions on cable
television's access to programs carried by
commercial broadcasters.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
23 Oct 1980
US
Members of the Screen Actors Guild and the
American Federation of Television and Radio
Artists formally end a three-month strike by
approving a three-year contract by a five-to-one
margin.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
03 Nov 1980
UK
The Broadcasting Act received Royal Assent,
authorizing UK's Independent Broadcasting
Authority to set up a fourth UK broadcasting
service, Channel Four Television and a separate
Welsh service, Sianel Pedwar Cymru (S4C).
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June 20089
1981
Canada
In 1981 the CRTC called for applications for pay
TV licenses. A total of 37 bids came in an public
hearings were scheduled.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 192
1981
US
Advance has over 500,000 cable television
subscribers.
http://www.cjr.org August 2006
1981
US
Reagan Administration deregulation under the
leadership of FCC Chairman Mark Fowler.
Deregulatory moves, some made by Congress,
others by the FCC included extending television
licenses to five years from three in 1981. The
number of television stations any single entity
could own grew from seven in 1981 to 12 in
1985. (Museum of Television and Radio)
http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/mediatimelin
e.html August 2006
16 Jul 1981
US
A three-judge panel of the US Second Circuit
Court of Appeals unanimously refuses to interfere
with a move by the FCC to deregulate cable
television.
Meltzer and Aronson, The Eighties
11 Jan 1982
US
CBS Incorporated issues a statement of apology
on behalf on the network and video journalist
Mike Wallace who had made racial slurs during
the filming of a segment of the 60 Minutes series.
Metlzer and Aronson, March 2011
Mar 1982
Canada
The CRTC announced the winners of the pay TV
beauty contest: First Choice and Superchannel
were awarded competing all-movie licenses, and
C Channel won a license as an arts
programming service.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 193
02 May 1982
US
The Weather Channel (United States) airs on
cable television for the first time.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1980.ht
m November 2010
02 Nov 1982
UK
Channel 4, the fourth terrestrial television channel,
is launched in England, Scotland and Northern
Ireland with the first program broadcast being the
game show Countdown.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1980.ht
m November 2010
1984
Canada
The CRTC licensed MuschMusic and TSN as
Canadian-based outlets for MTV and ESPN,
which is why their Canadian-continent quotas
were set so low - only 10 percent and 18 percent
respectively.
Fraser, Free, P. 201
1984
France
TV5, a consortium of French-language
broadcasters, was created in 1984 as a French-
led project to counter the Anglo-American
influences of CNN and BBC World Service.
Besides France's three main television networks
(TF1, France2, R3), other consortium members
were Belgium's RTBF, Canada's Radio-Canada,
and Switzerland's SSR. During its startup phase,
France continually expressed frustration with TV5,
mainly because its own broadcasters were
unable to exercise control despite paying most of
TV5's budget. At one point, France wanted to
shut down TV5, but changed its policy with TV5's
influence in Africa promised strategic geopolitical
advantages as an extension of France's cultural
ambitions in its former colonies.
Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction, P.
163
1984
US
Filmmaker Ken Burns' eleven-hour documentary
series, The Civil War was aired on five
consecutive nights on PBS. The series achieved
the highest ratings ever for PBS, averaging more
than 14 million viewers each evening.
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu January 2007
01 Jan 1984
UK
Cable Authority came into being on 1 January in
the UK to regulate cable development under
Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August 2006
Jul 1984
China
China's TV audience grows to 600 million
people.
http://www.danwei.org/internet/china_media_
timeline_danwei_wo.php Apr 2012
1985
International
In 1985 [Ted Turner] expanded overseas with
CNN International. By the early 1990s, however,
CNN was facing international competition from
the BC and Rupert Murdoch's Star TV in Asia.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 187
1985
International
Murdoch becomes US citizen in line with
regulations barring foreign ownership of
television stations.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2008
Feb 1985
Italy
Italy legalized private television broadcasting, of
which there was a vast amount already.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk February 2007
1986
US
Television is on for more than seven hours a day
in average U.S. home.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2007
1986
US
U.S., Europe veto Japanese analog HDTV; will
develop digital system. [Note: The Japanese had
developed and demonstrated by that time an
excellent high definition analogue TV - this veto
had the appearance of being protectionist.- SM]
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2007
1987
Canada
In 1987 only 294,000 were paying for 'full cable
service' offered by only 25 cable systems.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 205
1987
Canada
The CRTC licensed a new round of cable
channels, including Newsworld, Vision, YTV,
Weather Network, MusiquePlus, and TV5. The
regulator also announced that, henceforth,monthly
cable rates for so-called discretionary channels -
those channels not included as part of the 'basic'
package - would be deregulated.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 204
1987
France
France's main state television channel,
Télévision Française 1 (TF1), was privatized in
April - the first commercial sale of a public
service broadcaster in the world.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk March 2007
1987
Russia
93 percent of USSR households have TV.
http://www.caslon.com August 2006
1987
US
Government deregulated the cable industry.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
1987
US
In the week just ended [on 18 January], US Public
Broadcasting System (PBS) achieved an
audience reach of more than 100m viewers (i.e.,
watching at some time during the week) for the
first time.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2008
1988
US
98 percent of U.S. homes have at least one
television set.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2007
1988
US
Barter syndication revenues total $875 million, up
from $50 million in 1980.
http://www.high-
techproductions.com/historyoftelevision.htm
January 2011
1988
US
Congress passed legislation mandating the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting to negotiate
with a national coalition of independent film
producer groups to establish the Independent
Television Service (ITVS) to ensure that diverse
voices be championed on public television.
Independent producers themselves select the
board of directors of ITVS. In the next decade,
ITVS (based in San Francisco) underwrites
hundreds of notable documentary works aired on
PBS and elsewhere.
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu January 2007
1989
UK
Launch of Sky Television - reaches million
viewers within year.
http://www.ketupa.net July 2008
1989
US
Turner Broadcasting System licensed 1,000
feature films from Columbia Pictures Television
on 1 December, largest ever package for basic
cable screening (on TNT).
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2008
1989
US
Viacom had filed an anti-trust suit against Time
Inc. (before the Time Warner merger) charging
that Time's cable systems, in order to promote
Time-owned Home Box Office, refused to carry
Viacom's Showtime and the Movie Channel.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 197
1990
Italy
Legge Mammi creates Berlusconi/RAI duopoly
[in Italy].
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1990
UK
UK Broadcasting Act abolishes Independent
Broadcasting Authority (IBA) and establishes
Independent Television Commission (ITC).
http://www.caslon.com June 2008
1990
US
Congress passes Children's Television Act for
children's programming.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu May 2009
1990
US
In the early 1990s, the FCC modified the fin-syn
rules by allowing the Big Three networks to hold
an interest in the programs they aired and to
produce up to 40 percent of their schedules."
Fraser, Free For All, P. 159
01 Jan 1990
US
US Federal Communications Commission
implements "SYNDEX" giving independent
stations more rights over cable TV outlets for
exclusive syndicated programs. [1]
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1990.ht
m November 2010
1991
Canada
In 1991 some 1.7 million Canadians subscribed
to full cable, and the following year the figure
reached nearly 5 million.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 205
1991
Canada
The heart of the argument made by the CBC's
critics is that the private sector can not only do
everything that the CBC can do but it can do it
better. Commercial broadcaster have displaced
the CBC from the role that it once played as
booster rocket of the entire broadcasting system.
They point out that Canada is now the second
larger exporter of TV programs in the world after
the United States. Revenues from Canadian TV
and film production, including foreign location
shooting, skyrocketed from $1.4 billion to $2.8
billion Canadian between 1991 and 1997.
Canada has a thriving and dynamic independent
film and TV production industry with tentacles that
reach across the globe … Road to Avonlea,
produced by Sullivan Films is seen in 122
countries. Care Bears and Babar, produced by
Nelvana, are shown in 145 countries.
Taris, Power, P. 175
1991
Russia
Terrestrial broadcasting was the only method of
delivery of TV signals to people up to the end of
1991 (before the disintegration of the USSR).
The cost of access to terrestrial TV for
households amounted to not more than 0.086164170f
the general average household costs (from Euro
0.16-0.56/month).
http://www.obs.coe.int/about/oea/pr/digitaltv_
groteck.html January 2011
1991
US
60 percent of US homes have cable TV.
http://www.ketupa.net July 2006
1992
International
900 million TV sets in the world.
http://www.ketupa.net August 2006
1992
US
201 million TVs in the US.
http://www.caslon.com August 2009
1992
US
At least 50 US cities have competing cable
services.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2004
1992
US
Cable TV revenues reach $22 billion.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2004
1992
US
CNN earned $155 million (US) profit on revenues
of $536 million.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 187
1992
US
More than thirty-eight million people tuned to the
ABC, CBS, and NBC news every weekday night.
Postman and Powers, How, P. 116
1992
US
The show '48 Hours' (CBS) could be produced
for about $400,000 and returned $800,000 to
$900,000 in profits per show.
Postman and Powers, How, P. 57
1992
US
Weather people in small markets earn an
average of US$21,980 a year, according to the
National Association of Broadcasters. Weather-
casters make an average of $86,589 in the top
10 markets, with some earning a half million
dollars or more.
Postman and Powers, How, P. 37
29 Sep 1992
Brazil
Lawmakers in Brazil voted overwhelmingly to
impeach President Fernando Collor de Mello. He
was impeached following allegations of
corruption in a kickbacks scandal. The
proceedings were largely ignored by the Rede
Globo TV network.
http://timelines.ws June 2011
1993
US
[News Corp] acquires the right to broadcast NFL
games. The move shakes up American sports
television as it leaves the NBC network without
football coverage. Obtaining the NFL
broadcasting rights costs over $1 billion but seen
as a necessary investment to help promote
fledging Fox Network.
http://www.cjr.org August 2006
1993
US
A TV Guide poll found that one in four Americans
would not give up television even for a million
dollars.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1993
US
Demand for "V-chip" to block out violent or
sexual television programs.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu February
2006
1993
US
V-chip proposed for TV content control.
http://www.ketupa.net May 2007
1994
Brazil
The Marinhos family dominated television in
Brazil.
http://timelines.ws June 2011
1994
US
PRIMESTAR rolls out nationwide digital TV
service via medium-power Ku Band satellite.
Company unveils plans to transition to high-
power DBS operations in 1996. PRIMESTAR
ends 1994 with 350,000 units shipped,
approximately 250,000 subscribers.
http://www.parentstv.org/ptc/facts/tvtimeline.a
sp November 2010
1995
Canada
By the mid-1990s Canadian cable subscribers
were paying an average $21.86 a month for the
basic cable service, plus $7.22 extra for
extended basic. The cable industry's markup on
the extended basic package (after paying
wholesale fees to the channels) was at least 100
percent - markup rate rivalled in its audacity only
by the perfume and cosmetics industries.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 205
1995
Canada
In the mid-1990s the Canadian networks were
losing audience share and advertising revenues
much like the Big Four south of the border.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 171
1995
US
By the mid-1990s TCI and Time Warner, the two
biggest cable empires in the United States,
together accounted for 47.4 percent of all US
cable subscribers and were vertically integrated
with more than forty nationally distributed cable
channels.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 196
Jan 1995
US
The WB and the UPN become the first national
TV networks launched since 1986
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 691
16 Jan 1995
US
A new national television network, United
Paramount Network (UPN), is launched.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 697
13 Jul 1995
US
The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) announced plans to divide part of the
radio spectrum between wireless cable television
and satellite communications networks.
http://www.cbc.radio-canada.ca/history June
2007
06 Sep 1995
US
The FCC decides to lift immediately all rules that
prevented national TV networks from competing
in the syndicated TV market.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 775
05 Dec 1995
US
Officials announce that the ABC television
network will launch a 24-hour all-news television
channel in 1997. ABC is the latest in a series of
companies to announce plans for a 24-hour news
service to compete with CNN.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 807
12 Dec 1995
US
NBC agrees to pay $2.3 billion for the rights to
broadcast the 2004 Summer Olympic Games,
the 2006 Winter Olympic Games, and the 2008
Summer Olympics on TV and cable. The size of
the deal is record in sports TV history.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 691.
1996
Canada
76 percent of Canadians lived in cable-equipped
homes - the highest such penetration in the world.
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
March 2007
1996
Canada
In 1996, Izzy Asper [owner of Global TV] paid
himself $1.6 million in salary and bonuses plus
$2.2 million in options. The same year Jim Sward
who had scrambled up the ladder in Ted Roger's
radio and cellular phone groups before joining
Global, earned a salary of $774,480 plus $866,
250 in bonuses.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 161
1996
International
There were over a billion televisions in operation
around the world.
http://www.civilization.ca August 2006
1996
Qatar
Based in the tiny Persian Gulf emirate of Qatar,
Al-Jazeera [cable TV] had been launched in 22
Arab countries in 1996 via satellite. In the Arab
world, Al-Jazeera instantly became successful -
and notorious - because it eschewed the
established model of state-controlled Middle
East broadcasters, which traditionally were
sheepishly reverential to political and religious
authorities. With Al-Jazeera, the Islamic world
had its own CNN.
Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction, P.
145
1996
US
The FCC approves a digital HDTV standard.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu July 2006
06 Feb 1996
US
Data from a study shows that 57 percent of TV
programs examined depict violence.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 837
Jun 1996
US
In Denver Area Educational Telecommunications
Consortium Inc. vs. FCC, the Supreme Court in a
fragmented decision, rules that cable-TV
operators may restrict access to indecent
programs on certain commercial channels but not
on public-access channels. The regulation is
known as the Helm Amendment.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 821
Aug 1996
US
The FCC approves new regulations including
one that requires TV stations to air three hours of
children's educational programming each week.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 821
29 Aug 1996
US
Nielsen Media Research records 20.2 million
viewers watching the night of the Democratic
convention on ABC, CBS, and NBC combined.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 905
19 Sep 1996
US
Media conglomerate TIme Warner, the nation's
leading provider of cable TV announces that half
of its cable systems will carry MSNBC, a new 24-
hour news channel run by Microsoft and NBC. I
also states that it has broken off negotiations with
News Corp for Fox News.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 913
23 Sep 1996
International
Forbes magazine lists Oprah WInfrey, a TV host
and producer, as the World's highest-paid
entertainer with estimated earning for 1995 and
1996 of $171 million.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 913
Dec 1996
US
A panel composed of TV-industry
representatives announce a planned system for
rating TV programs based on their level of violent
and sexual content, scheduled to take effect in
January 1997.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 823
1997
Canada
According to annual reports by the CHUM group,
which owns Citytv and its speciality channels, in
1997 Moses Znaimer earned $1.4 million in
compensation plus $754,800 in fees paid by
CHUM to his personal company, Olympus
Management Limited, for 'management of
production and performance services. In 1998,
his compensation was $1.5 million.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 184
1997
Canada
Bravo! channel made a 16.5 percent profit on
total revenues of $14.3 million - $12.2 million
from cable subscriptions and $2 million from
advertising.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 186
1997
Canada
Total revenues (advertising and subscription) for
Canadian specialty channels were $589 million,
on which they earned an average profit margin of
18 percent. Advertising revenue for specialty
channels in Canada has been growing by about
17 percent every year since 1993.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 184
1997
US
An iTV (interactive TV) experiment in Columbus,
Ohio, known as Qube became the first two-way
commercial cable TV service. Operated jointly by
Warner Communications and Amex Cable, Qube
allowed cable TV subscribers to select pay-per-
view movies for the first time.
Encyclopedia of New Media, P. 239
1997
US
U.S. television adopts age-based ratings. News
and sports are excluded.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2009
26 Mar 1997
US
Researchers conducting a study commissioned
by the National Cable Television Association find
that the new national television-rating system
often attracts children to adult-oriented programs.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 985
31 Mar 1997
US
In TBS v. FCC, the Supreme Court rules, 5-4, to
uphold the 'must-carry' law, a provision in a 1992
package of cable-TV legislation that requires
operators of cable-TV systems to carry the
signals of local broadcast-TV stations.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 985
Apr 1997
US
In April of 1997, Microsoft bought the WebTV
network for $425 million dollars and have
trademarked the name.
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl
_web_tv.htm February 2011
30 Apr 1997
US
In the TV series Ellen, the character played by
Ellen DeGeneres reveals that she is a lesbian,
becoming the first lead character in a TV series
to open acknowledge her homosexuality.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 995
16 Dec 1997
Japan
Hundreds of Japanese children went to the
hospital with spasms and nausea caused by a
TV cartoon show, "Pokémon."
http://timelines.ws February 2008
1998
US
By 1998 nearly 66 million American households
subscribed to cable -about 67 percent of US
television homes. The rapid penetration of cable
TV led to the explosive growth of more than 100
cable networks, generating more than $30 billion
(US) in annual subscription revenues.
Fraser, Free for All, P. 188
1998
US
NBC agrees to fork over $13 million an episode
for the next three years for broadcast rights to the
top-rated series ER. The total dollar figure, $850
million, eclipses any price ever paid for a
television show.
http://www.factmonster.com March 2007
14 Jan 1998
US
NBC agrees to pay $13 million per episode for
the next three years to continue broadcasting ER.
It is the highest per-episode price ever paid for a
TV series.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 1091
26 Jan 1998
US
Statistics reveal the Super Bowl's Nielsen rating
was 44.5, which means it drew an audience of
133.4 million people in the US, tying it for the
third-most watched program in TV history.
Avasthi, Nineties, P. 1095
Jul 1998
US
In late July 1998, Time Warner CEO Gerald Levin
said that TIme Warner would make its cable plant
available to long-distance phone companies like
AT&T to offer local phone service.
Fraser, Free, P. 101
08 Jul 1998
Afghanistan
The Taliban decreed that television was
corrupting Afghan society and issued an edict
that banned televisions, videocassette recorders,
videos and satellite dishes.
http://timelines.ws January 2008
01 Oct 1998
UK
Sky Digital television service launches in the
United Kingdom.
http://worldtimeline.info/television/tele1995.ht
m November 2010
1999
[Ted] Turner learned the hard way what he could
have figured out after spending a day at
Znaimer's Citytv: there is no such thing as 'global'
televsion. In television as in art, everything is
local. Turner had understood the horizontal logic
of niche TV, but he had failed to appreciate the
compulsions of space and time -the bonds of
locality. At first, he resisted the pressure to
transform CNN into a non-American news
channel. He believed that what worked in Atlanta
would be consumed without resistance in
Germany, Australia, and India. He was wrong.
Turned was formed to admit that, in television
programming, there was no such thing as
globalization - only glocalization.
Fraser, Free For All, P. 187 (1999)
1999
Observing a common perceptual denominator in
television and stained glass windows - both are
animated by light behind the glass, which
reaches our eyes after shining through it -
McLuhan came to the astonishing conclusion
about television: it draws and commands our
attention with an almost hypnotic, religious
intensity, because that is the way our brains
respond to a 'light-through' invitation.
Levinson, Digital McLuhan, P. 9 (1999)
1999
Botswana
The Government's Botswana TV station is
scheduled to begin transmission in late 1999.
http://www.filmbirth.com/botswana.html May
2011
1999
Canada
In its 1999 policy statement on Canadian
television, the Canadian Radio-television and
Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
emphasized that Canadian television
programming should reflect the country's cultural
diversity. The Commission stated that when
broadcasters apply for or renew their licenses,
they should demonstrate a commitment to cultural
diversity through specific initiatives.
http://www.media-awareness.ca September
2006
1999
US
Viacom and CBS announce merger on 7
September. The deal, the largest media merger
of the time, comes one month after the FCC
gives approval to duopolies. The new Viacom
has 33 television stations, which eclipse the
FCC's 35 percent ownership cap. The cap is
based on the amount of stations one company
owns that reach 35 percent or more of the
nation's television households.
http://www.cjr.org March 2007
2000
US
FCC approves Viacom/CBS Merger.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
2000
US
It is estimated that 99 percent of all US cartoon
television programs are drawn in Asia.
Harper's Index
2000
US
NBC paid $715m for the US television rights to
the Olympic Games.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk December 2008
Jan 2000
International
The NAB Information Resource Center is not
aware of a single source for international
television and radio station totals. However, there
is a list of totals for most countries available
online through the CIA World Factbook (Radio;
TV). Using this list, the IRC has compiled
approximate, unofficial international totals.
Worldwide, as of January 2000, there are over
21,500 television stations and over 44,000 radio
stations in the world
http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/34318
2001
Europe
The European Convention on Transfrontier
Television came into force on 1 March extending
the provisions of the European Union's Television
without Frontiers directive to all member states of
the Council of Europe.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk November 2008
2001
Russia
Bringing court cases against two of the country's
biggest tycoons, Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir
Gusinsky, and acting through the giant energy
groups Gazprom and Lukoil, the Kremlin wrested
control of NTV in 2001 and ordered the closure of
TV-6 in 2002.
BBC 2001
2001
US
Average American adult watches 4 hours of TV
daily.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu March
2007
2001
US
United States Court of Appeals, DC Circuit gives
Viacom temporary approval to exceed the 35
ownership cap.
http://www.cjr.org July 2007
04 Apr 2001
Russia
CNN founder Ted Turner has confirmed he has
reached a deal to buy out Vladimir Gusinsky, the
owner of NTV -- Russia's only independent
television network.
http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europ
e/04/04/turner.ntv/ February 2011
22 Jun 2001
US
Kelsey Grammer, star of Paramount's sitcom
Frasier, becomes the highest paid actor on
television with a four-year contract for 48
episodes for which he will be paid $1.6m each,
compared with his previous reported fee of $250,
000, plus royalties from syndication. The six stars
of the sitcom Friends held the previous record.
They were reported to have been paid $20m a
year each.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2006
28 Oct 2001
US
EchoStar attempts to become the dominant
satellite television provider in the United States
on 28 October 2001 by announcing merger with
DirecTV in a $25.8 billion deal. In 2002, the U.S.
Justice Department successfully thwarted the
merger.
http://www.commoncause.org October 2006
2002
Television is centrally located in society. Radio
now appears more decentralized because of the
large number of popularity of regional and local
radio stations. Even if there is also local
television, the medium appears more centralized
since it is dominated by national networks with
their headquarters either in the capital or in major
metropolitan areas, as is the case in the USA.
Television also appears 'centrally' located
because it seems so close to the centres of
social power: central political and, for instance,
financial institutions are represented on television
every night.
Gripsrud, Understanding Media Culture, P.
261 (2002)
2002
International
MTV reportedly reaches 250 million homes
worldwide.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
Jan 2002
Russia
Russia's last independent national TV station, TV-
6, is forced by the authorities to stop
broadcasting, sparking fresh concerns about free
speech. It is later awarded a new license after
journalists team up with Kremlin-backed
managers and goes back on air in June with the
new name TVS.
BBC August 2006
02 Nov 2002
Kuwait
Kuwait closed the office of Al-Jazeera, the Arab
world's most popular satellite TV network,
claiming it was "not objective."
http://timelines.ws June 2009
2003
International
The bottom line is that television networks
wanted to make the war (in Iraq) as bloodless as
possible in order to boost ratings. And this tactic
was a success. During the beginning of the war
viewer ship of CNN, Fox News and MSNBC
tripled. In the first 19 days of the war, Fox
averaged 3.3 million viewers, a 236 percent
increase from the weeks preceding the war.
CNN: 2.7 million, up 313 percent. MSNBC: 1.4
million, up 360 percent. By comparison, NBC
Nightly News' war average during this same time
period was 11.4 million viewers, ABC's World
News Tonight was 9.9 million, and CBS got 7.5
million.
http://www.turnoffyourtv.com/commentary/war
tv3.html August 2007
2003
International
The PricewaterhouseCoopers business firm
estimates that the global TV network market rose
in 2003 to $130.7 billion. In the company's Global
Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2004-2008
report, it predicts that by 2008, the industry will
reach $174 billion. The fastest growing market is,
not surprisingly, the United States with an annual
growth rate of 7.5 percent. The company
estimates that U.S. broadcast and cable TV
networks made $47 billion in 2003 and in 2004
revenue will grow to $52.3 billion. The overall
entertainment and media industry, according to
PricewaterhouseCoopers, will expand from $1.2
trillion in 2003 to $1.7 trillion by 2008.
http://www.turnoffyourtv.com/networks/
revenueupdate04/ revenue.html January
2007
2003
US
Consider that one of the top networks, NBC,
grossed $6.87 billion in one year (2003). Why
would the owner, General Electric, do anything to
jeopardize that? For NBC, even more important
than large sums of money is the power of
reaching 108 million homes with an average
audience of 13.3 million people. General Electric
and the other corporate owners of television
stations purposely direct their networks to carry
the evangelical message that TV is good and the
corporate owners are benevolent. NBC News will
never produce a story critical of General Electric,
no matter what the circumstances.
http://www.turnoffyourtv.com/commentary/hid
denagenda/agenda.html August 2006
Jun 2003
Russia
Government cites financial reasons for axing last
remaining nationwide independent TV channel,
TVS. Liberal observers criticize the move as the
latest Kremlin bid to curb media freedom.
BBC July 2003
04 Aug 2003
Germany
Berlin/Brandenburg completed the conversion
from analogue to digital terrestrial television and
become the first locations in the world to switch
off analogue transmitters.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June 2006
2004
US
98 percent of all U.S. homes have color
television.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu August
2006
Jan 2004
France
The French government lifted the ban on
television advertising of books, imposed in 1992
to protect the interests of smaller publishers. The
book trade agreed to advertise only on cable and
satellite channels. A similar ban on advertising of
newspapers and supermarkets (to protect niche
magazines and small shops) was also removed.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August 2006
2005
Canada
Those [Canadians] aged 15 and over spent a
little more than two hours each day watching TV
in 2005. That's down from just over three hours in
1998 as people devote more time to other media
but they're more likely to be watching alone.
Edmonton Journal 16 October 2007
2005
Hungary
The Hungarian government published proposals
on 10 March for the introduction of digital
terrestrial television (DTT). Three multiplexes are
to be introduced in 2007. Analogue
transmissions will end when transmissions reach
97 per cent of the population and when 98 per
cent of viewers have digital receiving equipment,
which must be not later than 31 December 2012.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2007
2005
Russia
An English-language satellite [TV] channel,
Russia Today, was launched in late 2005. The
news-based station is funded by the Kremlin and
aims to present "global news from a Russian
perspective".
BBC July 2005
01 Feb 2005
UK
Satellite channel Exstasi TV was banned by the
UK government under a Foreign Satellite
Proscription Order because of 'violent
pornography' in its content.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk October 2009
25 Jul 2005
Albania
Albania's National Council for Radio and
Television announced that it would invite
competing tenders for another (third) privately
owned national analogue television channel.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk June 2007
19 Sep 2005
Sweden
Television broadcasters in Sweden begin
shutting down analog transmissions, beginning in
Gotland.
http://www.islandnet.com June 2008
Oct 2005
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic's Broadcasting Council
fined two broadcasters, Nova and Prima, for
transmitted the so-called 'reality' show Big
Brother before the watershed of 22:00. The
Council argued that the program undermined
values of respect and regard for the integrity of
others and that showing such anti-social behavior
might legitimize it in the minds of young people.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk January 2008
22 Dec 2005
Italy
Italy's antitrust authority said it has opened an
investigation to determine whether Premier Silvio
Berlusconi violated conflict of interest rules when
his government approved subsidies to Italians
who buy digital-television decoders.
http://timelines.ws August 2007
2006
France
Canal Plus in France began on 4 April to
distribute set-top boxes for its high definition
satellite television service.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August 2007
2006
France
Lagardere agrees to buy 20 percent of Vivendi
Universal's French pay-TV business Canal Plus
in exchange for its 34 percent stake in
CanalSatellite and €525m.
http://ketupa.net/timeline9.htm January 2011
2006
France
The French national audiovisual archives, Institut
National de l'Audiovisuel (INA), made 10,000
hours of television program material (100,000
items) available online to the general public on
27 April. The files include 3,000 hours of
television news from the past 30 years and
amount to about a third of all French public
television archives. It is intended that the entire
holdings will be available online by 2015.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2007
2006
Russia
It was announced on 6 April that Russia was
expected to launch a system of digital television
in Russia by the year 2015, according to the
Minister for Information Technologies and
Telecommunications Leonid Reiman.
BBC January 2006
26 Jan 2006
Netherlands
The Minister of Justice in the Netherlands
announced that all satellite transmission by
television channels Al Manar and SaharTV1,
respectively in Lebanon and Iraq would be
blocked for their tendency to disseminate hatred.
Internet reception of the channel is not blocked.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk August 2006
01 Mar 2006
Lithuania
Digital terrestrial television (DTT) licenses are
awarded by the Radio and Television
Commission of Lithuania, granting two channels
each to Baltijos TV, Laisvas ir Nepriklausomas
Kanalas, Tele-3 and K, and one channel to
Spaudos Televizija.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2007
15 Jun 2006
France
In France, 19 more transmitters begin digital
terrestrial television transmissions, bringing
coverage to 55 per cent of French households
and working towards 85 per cent coverage by the
end of 2007.
http://www.terrmamedia.co.uk August 2008
07 Jul 2006
Italy
Former Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi was ordered
to stand trial following an investigation into the
sale of television rights at Mediaset SpA.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
12 Oct 2006
Italy
In Italy the government of Romano Prodi
approved a bill to erode the near-monopoly over
private television exercised by Silvio Berlusconi,
who controls 3 of the country's 4 main private
channels.
http://timelines.ws January 2007
29 Oct 2006
Netherlands
Netherlands will switch off its analogue terrestrial
television transmitters. These have served a
small proportion of the population as 92 per cent
of households are connected to cable networks.
http://www.terramedia.co.uk July 2008
2007
Canada
Canada's broadcast regulator has thrown a huge
wrench into CTVglobemedia's $1.4-billion plan to
take over CHUM Ltd. The CRTC has told
CTVglobemedia's it will approve its acquisition
of CHUM, but only if it sells all five of the Citytv
stations it also acquired in the deal. The regulator
said allowing CTVglobemedia to hang on to the
Citytv stations would violate its "common
ownership" policy that prevents a broadcaster
from operating more than one conventional
television station in one language in a given
market.
CBC 8 June 2007
2007
China
China is the world's largest TV market with 378m
TV households and 152m cable TV households
by the end of 2007.
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/
599609/china_cable_television_market_ass
essment_and February 2011
2007
US
FCC asks Congress for power to regulate TV
violence.
http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu January
2008
02 May 2007
Egypt
An Egyptian court sentenced Al Jazeera
producer Huweida Taha Metwalli to six months in
jail or a fine of 10,000 Egyptian pounds ($1,760)
for her part in producing a feature on torture by
Egyptian police.
http://timelines.ws June 2008
14 May 2007
Italy
Endemol, the brains behind reality television
shows like "Big Brother", fell into the hands of a
consortium led by Italy's Mediaset which is
looking to branch out of the saturated Italian
television market.
http://timelines.ws February 2008
07 Dec 2007
Canada
Canada's TV watchdog blessed the launch of
Vanessa, national PAY-TV porn channel.
http://timelines.ws June 2008
2008
China
2008 saw an increase of 18 million new DTV
households to reach 45.3 million or 28 percent of
China's 163 million total cable TV households.
The transition to DTV-only service was
completed in 106 cities and a further 123 cities
are currently undergoing the changeover. This is
an impressive achievement, but cable operators
have had much less success with making use of
the digital platform by introducing interactive
services such as broadband access, time shift,
playback and video-on-demand (VOD).
http://www.ftchinaconfidential.com/Industries/I
nformationTechnology/Research/WebOnly/ar
ticle/20090723/ff0b87e6-77ac-11de-bac6-
0015171400aa/cmsassets/Assets/Pdf/Rese
arch/BDAhinaableTV
.pdf February 2011
2008
Saudi Arabia
A senior judge in Saudi Arabia has declared on
state radio that it is acceptable to kill owners of
satellite TV channels that air immoral programs.
Sheikh Salih Ibn al-Luhaydan made the comment
on Friday in response to a listener who asked his
opinion about TV programs that feature scantily-
clad women during the Muslim holy month of
Ramadan, according to BBC News. Salih al-
Luhaydan is chairman of the Saudi Supreme
Judicial Council. He replied to the listener by
saying that some of those “evil” entertainments
promoted debauchery. "The owners of these
channels are as guilty as those who watch them,"
said the sheikh. "It is legitimate to kill those who
call for corruption if their evil cannot be stopped
by other penalties." He said those programs
caused the "deviance of thousands of people"
because they feature "seduction, obscenity and
vulgarity." His comments have caused a big stir
in the Middle East, as several Saudi princes own
satellite networks. There's been no response so
far from the Saudi royal family.
CBC September 13 2008
Jun 2009
US
The last of the US analogue television
transmitters switched to digital.
http://timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML
January 2011
25 Jul 2009
International
Chinese state television launched an Arabic-
language channel beamed to the Middle East
and Africa as part of efforts to expand the
communist government's media influence
abroad.
http://timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML
January 2011
03 Dec 2009
US
Comcast Corp. announced it plans to buy a
majority stake in NBC Universal for $13.75 billion,
giving the nation's largest cable TV operator
control of the Peacock network, an array of cable
channels and a major movie studio.
http://timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML
January 2011
2010
Russia
Russia’s cable market, like most others in
Central and Eastern Europe, currently finds itself
in a period of consolidation. 2010 saw MTS,
which was already the number two operator
through its majority stake in Comstar-UTS, buy
fifth-placed Multiregion for a total fee of almost
$210 million (€158.7 million). At the same time,
ER-Telecom, the fourth largest operator, secured
a new strategic investor in the shape of Baring
Vostok Capital Partners (BVCP) and Akado, the
number three operator, became the take-over
target for a number of parties head by the
national telco Svyazinvest.
http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2011/01/1
7/russian-tv-market-takes-off/ February 2011
06 Jan 2010
Morocco
In Morocco the first Berber TV channel in the
ancient but marginalized tongue of Amazigh was
launched after a decades-long struggle.
http://www.timelines.ws/21stcent/2010_1.HT
ML
07 Jan 2010
US
Intel CEO Paul Otellini introduced a technology
called Intel Wireless Display (WiDi) that allows a
user to beam the contents of a computer screen
to a TV.
http://www.timelines.ws/21stcent/2010_1.HT
ML December 2010
06 Oct 2010
US
Logitech introduced Revue, a $299.99 set-top
box for Google's new TV service. The device
allows users to access websites, Internet video,
digital pictures and music from their televisions.
Apple's set-top box was introduced on Sep 1 for
$99.
http://timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML
January 2011
2011
Russia
Russia’s TV industry is by far the largest and
most lucrative in Central and Eastern Europe.
Serving almost 52 million homes it encompasses
Europe's second cable market in terms of
subscribers after Germany, the region's biggest
IPTV sector and at least six DTH platforms. It
also includes a number of national and regional
broadcasters, a multitude of thematic channels,
mobile TV operations and embryonic DTT
services.
http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2011/01/1
7/russian-tv-market-takes-off/ February 2011
31 Aug 2011
Canada
On August 31 2011, Canadian broadcasters will
switch from analog to digital broadcasts. The
shift to digital brings several advantages
including better image and sound quality as well
as more efficient use of spectrum that will open
the door to new telecom services. It also
requires those relying on over-the-air signals to
have a television with a digital tuner or obtain a
digital converter box to convert the digital signal
back to analog.
http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/523
6/135/ February 2011
2012
China
Cable accounts for 99.3 per cent of the Chinese
pay TV market and is expected to maintain
market share at over 90 per cent through to
2012.becoming the largest cable operator in
Hunan, serving 63 per cent of all cable users.
HTBI plans to acquire all of the province's
remaining local operators by 2011. And these
are some of the
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/
599609/china_cable_television_market_ass
essment_and February 2011
2012
Egypt
At least 16 independent news channels have
emerged since uprisings led to the ouster of
President Hosni Mubarak last year. Broadband
access in Egypt rose 27 percent in 2011, helping
channels like al-Jazeera and Egyptian channels
like ONTV and Dream TV. Egypt's government
still subsidizes state media, resulting in self
censorship, but there is less pressure on
advertisers that want to put ads on indie outlets.
Private media have room to run: only 4 percent of
households with a television subscribe to pay TV.
TIme Magazine, 21 May 2012
2012
Russia
Russia's three state-dominated news networks
control 90 percent of the $4.5 billion TV ad
market, and they air fawning coverage of
Russia's strongman leader, Vladimir Putin, who
became President again on May 7. But as the
nation's economy grows, more young urbanites
are turning to the Internet and pay TV for
uncensored news. Broadband access increased
37 percent last year. In December 2011, during
the 'snowy revolution,' many disgruntled Russians
watched the protests on indie upstart station TV
Rain, now Russia's most popular independent
cable-news outlet.
TIme Magazine, 21 May 2012
2013
South Africa
South Africa will adopt the DVB-T2 digital
television standard, and the country's migration
from analogue to digital TV broadcasting should
be complete by December 2013, says
Communications Minister Radhakrishna
Padayachie.
http://www.southafrica.info/about/media/
March 2011
2015
China
China aims to switch-off analogue TV by 2015.
Current digital cable TV subscribers are 25m (17
per cent of cable TV homes).
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/
599609/china_cable_television_market_ass
essment_and February 2011
Television Timeline
Created with Timeline Maker Professional. Produced on 26 May 2012.