Start Date
19 Jul 4241 BCE
A kingship probably emerged to meet the
demands of a uniform system of administration.
Its power was probably strengthened with the
beginnings of the measurement of time on July
19, 4241 BCE when Sirius arose at sunrise and
prediction of time became more certain with
recognition of a year of 365 days.
Innis, Bias, P. 93
0400 BCE
Greeks use a water clock which measures the
outflow of water from a vessel, to measure time.
June 2012
0063 BCE
Roman Empire
Julius Caesar hires Sosigenes, an astronomer
from Alexandria, to reform Roman calendar.
August 2010
The Antikythera Device, a bronze mechanical
lunar month calculator, is constructed in Greece.
ml November 2010
The first mechanical clock, built by Liang Ling-
Can, in China
st century BCE August 2010
Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English
People popularises method of dating events from
birth of Christ. This date in the 20th Century is
neutrally called 'the start of CE' (i.e. Common
st century BCE August 2010
The first public striking clock is erected in Milan,
000s August 2010
King Charles V of France decrees that all Paris
church bells must ring at the same time as the
Royal Palace, helping end the ringing of bells at
the canonical hours (prayer times) decreed by
the church.
June 2012
Peter Henlein, a craftsman from Nuremberg
Germany, creates the first watch.
tm November 2010
During the hundred years that followed Rabelais'
death in 1553, there are many indications that
exact time, exact quantities, exact distances
were coming to have a greatly increased interest
for men and women in connexion with private and
public life. One of the most impressive examples
of the new concern with precision was the action
taken by the Church of Rome to provide a more
exact calendar. Throughout the Middle Ages the
ways in which the Christian peoples measured
the passage of time were based on calculations
made before the fall of the Roman Empire. The
Julian calendar of A.D. 325 was still in use in the
time of Rabelais.
Nef, Cultural, P. 8
British clockmaker William Clement invents the
minute hand for clocks.
ml November 2007
01 Jan 1700
Russia replaced the Byzantine with the Julian
calendar. August 2010
03 Sep 1752
The Gregorian Adjustment to the calendar was
put into effect in Great Britain and the American
colonies followed. At this point in time 11 days
needed to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was
selected to be followed by Sept. 14. People
rioted thinking the government stole 11 days of
their lives. May 2011
There are approximately 5,000 chronometers in
the world.
800s August 2010
Telegraph invented, allowing instant transmission
of time signals.
June 2012
In the 1840s, the introduction of the railways in
Britain leads to the adoption of Greenwich Mean
Time (GMT) as a national time system which
replaces the local time in major towns and cities.
800s August 2010
Twenty-five countries accept Greenwich, England,
as the prime meridian (0 degrees longitude). The
prime meridian gradually becomes the basis for
time throughout the world.
June 2012
A radio time signal starts being transmitted from
Washington DC to help ships find longitude.
June 2012
How far space, time problem reflected by
interests of landlords (time) in England as
opposed to interests of manufacturers and
friction assisting in development of parliamentary
Innis, Idea File, 17-26 (1952)
Time and space concept essential basis of law -
i.e. Timasheff force and religion." (Note:
Nicholas Sergeievich Timasheff (1886-1970)
was a Russian sociologist, professor of
jurisprudence and writer - SM]
Innis, Idea File, 16-25 (1952)
Liberia accepts Greenwich, England, as the
prime meridian (0 degrees longitude).
June 2012
By a space-binding culture he [Innis] meant
literally that a culture whose predominant interest
was in space - land as real estate, voyage,
discovery, movement, expansion, empire,
control. In the realm of symbols he meant the
growth of symbols and conceptions that
supported these interests: the physics of space,
the arts of navigation and civil engineering, the
price system, the mathematics of tax collectors
and bureaucracies, the entire realm of physical
science, and the system of affectless rational
symbols that facilitated those interests. In the
realm of communities he meant communities of
space, mobile, connected over vast distances by
appropriate symbols, forms and interests. To
space-binding cultures he opposed time-binding
cultures with interests in time - history, continuity,
permanence, contraction: whose symbols were
fiduciary - oral, mythopoetic, religious, ritualistic;
and whose communities were rooted in place -
intimate ties and a shared historical culture. The
genius of social policy, he thought was to serve
the demands of both time and space, to use one
to prevent the excesses of the other
Carey, Communication, P. 160 (1989)
For Innis, media created bias in the popular
construction of reality by transforming information
and organizing knowledge in patterns consistent
with the structure of powerful social
organizations. He argued that one of the most
important social challenges lay in preserving
information over time and making it transportable
through space. For most of human history,
communication media have achieved one goal at
the expense of another, being either durable or
transportable. But in the first half of the twentieth
century, Innis observed new electronic media,
like motion pictures, loudspeakers, and radio
and television technologies that seemed to
achieve both goals. As a distinguishing feature of
modernity, the radio helped overcome both
space and time, letting politicians appeal to
people over vast areas, bypassing class
divisions in education and literacy, bringing
science in to popular culture, and empowering
centralized bureaucracy.
Innis in Encyclopedia of New Media, P. 236
Time Timeline
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